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\begin{document}\errorcontextlines=100
\begin{titlepage}
\thispagestyle{empty}
\centering
\textsc{\large Claudio Beccari}\\[2ex]
\texttt{claudio dot beccari at gmail dot com}
\vspace{\stretch{2}}
{\LARGE\scshape The \pack{euclideangeometry} package\\
{\large user manual}\par}
\vspace{\baselineskip}
\GetFileInfo{euclideangeometry.sty}
Version \fileversion\ of \filedate
\vspace*{\stretch{5}}
\end{titlepage}
\begin{abstract}
The \pack{euclideangeometry} package further extends the functionalities
of the \pack{curve2e} package, which, on turn, is an extension of the
\pack{pict2e} package for the standard \env{picture} environment as
defined in the \LaTeX\ kernel source file.
The \pack{curve2e} package was upgraded in 2020 and again in 2023; some
material of this package, might have been included in the former pict2e
one, but it is so specific, that we preferred defining a standalone one;
this package takes care of requesting the packages it depends from.
The purpose is to provide the tools to draw most of the geometrical
constructions that a high school teacher or bachelor degree professor
might need in order to teach (plane) geometry. The connection to Euclide
depends on the fact that in its times calculations were made with ruler,
compass, and, apparently, also with the ellipsograph.
The user of this package has available all the machinery provided by
the \pack{pict2e} and \pack{curve2e} packages, in order to define new
functionalities and build macros that draw the necessary lines, circles,
and other such objects, as they would have done in the old times.
Actually just one macro is defined in this package to solve a linear
system of equations
\end{abstract}
\tableofcontents
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
\section*{Warning}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
The \pack{euclideangeometry} package requires the advanced functionalities of the \LaTeX\!3 (L3) language; if such functionalities are not available for any reason (incomplete/basic installation of the \TeX system; legacy installation of the \TeX system; the \TeX system has not been updated; \dots) input of this package is stopped, the whole job is aborted, and a visible message is issued.
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
\section{Introduction}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
The \pack{picture} environment has been available since the very
beginning
of \LaTeX in 1985. At that time it was really a simple environment
that allowed to draw very simple line graphics with many limitations.
When \LaTeX was upgraded from \LaTeX\!2.09 to \LaTeXe in 1994, Leslie
Lamport announced an upgrade that eventually became available in 2003
with package \pack{pict2e}; in 2006 I wrote the first version of the
\pack{curve2e} package that added many more functionalities; both
packages were upgraded during these years; and now line graphics with
the \env{picture} environment can perform pretty well. The package
\pack{euclideangeometry} adds even more specific functionalities in order
to produce geometric drawings as they were possible in the old times,
when calculus and analytic geometry were not available.
In these years other drawing programs were made available to the \TeX
community; \pack{PSTricks} and \pack{TikZ} are the most known ones, but
there are other less known packages, that perform very well; among the
latter I would like to mention \pack{xpicture}, that relies on
\pack{pict2e} and \pack{curve2e}, but extends the functionalities with a
very smart handling of coordinate systems, that allow to draw many line
drawings suitable for teaching geometry in high schools and introductory
courses in the university bachelor degree programs. It is worth
mentioning that an extension of \pack{TikZ}, called \pack{tkz-euclide},
is also available in a complete and updated \TeX system installation; at
the moment its documentation needs some refinements, at least to
consistently use a single language, without switching from English
to French and viceversa. It aims at the same readership, but it allows
to do many more geometrical constructions, than \pack{euclideangeometry}.
The real difference is that \pack{euclideangemetry} may be easily
expanded without the need of knowing the complex machinery and coding
of the \pack{tkz-euclide} underlaying \pack{TikZ} package.
This package \pack{euclideangeomery} apparently follows the same
path of \pack{xpicture}, but it avoids defining a new user language
interface; rather it builds new macros by using the same philosophy of
the recent \pack{curve2e} package.
It is worth mentioning that now \pack{curve2e} accepts coordinates in
both cartesian and polar form; it allows to identify specific points of
the drawing with macros, so the same macro can be used over and over
again to address the same point. The package can draw lines, vectors,
arcs with no arrow tips, or with one arrow tip, or with arrow tips at
both ends, arcs included. The macros for drawing polylines, polygons,
circles, generic curves (by means of Bézier cubic or quadratic splines)
are already available; such facilities are documented and exemplified
in the user manual of the \pack{curve2e} package.
In what follows there will be several figures drawn with this package;
in the background there is a red grid where the meshes are
10\,\cs{unitlenth} apart in both directions; they should help to
understand the position of the various drawings on the picture canvas.
This grid is useful also to the end user, while s/he is working on a
particular drawing, but when the drawing is finished, the user can
delete the grid command or comment out that line of code.
For what regards the commands used to render the images, their
\emph{codes} can be found in the documented code file
\pack{euclideangeometry.pdf}.
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
\section{Installing \pack{euclideangeometry}}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
You are not supposed to manually install package \pack{euclideangeometry}.
In facts you have to work with a complete and updated/upgraded \TeX
installation, otherwise this package won't work; this means that
you have done your updating after 2020-01-18. And this package is already
present in any modern updated complete installation of the \TeX system.
If \pack{curve2e} has a date earlier then 2020-01-018, the \pack{curve2e}
itself will load \pack{curve2ev161}, an older version, and this package
\pack{euclideangeomentry} will abort its own loading, besides
aborting the whole job.
We remember the package dependencies; the primary dependence is package
\pack{curve2e} with a version date more recent or equal to 2020-01-18.
On turn \pack{curve2e} requires packages \pack{xparse} and
\pack{xfp}\footnote{Most functionalities of \pack{xfp} are already
included into the \LaTeXe kernel, but this package uses also some
functionalities that have not made their way to the kernel.};
missing these two package, it loads its own previous version, that does
not use such packages, but their absence forbids it working, so that,
after a very visible error message, it directly aborts.
It also depends on \pack{etoolbox}. The chain of dependencies of the
above first level packages may be controlled directly on those packages
documentation
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
\section{Loading \pack{euclideangeometry}}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
If you want to use the \pack{euclideangeometry} package, we suggest you
load it with the following command:
\begin{flushleft}\obeylines
\cs{usepackage}\oarg{options}\Marg{euclideangeomery}
\end{flushleft}
The package will take care of managing the possible \meta{options}
and to call \pack{curve2e} with such specified options; on turn
\pack{curve2e} calls \pack{pict2e} passing on the \meta{options}; such
\meta{options} are only those usable by \pack{pict2e} because neither
\pack{curve2e} nor \pack{euclideangeometry} use any option. If the
user is invoking \pack{euclideangeometry}, it is certain s/he does
not want to use the modern extended picture environment, not the native
one; therefore the only meaningful possible options are
\opt{latex} and \opt{pstricks}; such options influence only the shape
of the arrow tips; with option \opt{latex} they are triangular,
while with \opt{pstricks} they have the shape of a stealth
aircraft. The difference is very small; therefore we imagine that
even if these options are available, they might never be used.
Nothing happens if the user forgets this mechanism; therefore if s/he
loads \pack{curve2e} and/or \pack{pict2e}, before
\pack{euclideangeomentry} the only problem that might arise is an
“Option clash” error message; if two of these packages are selected
with different arrow tips; not impossible, of course, by we deem
it very unlikely.
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
\section{Available commands}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
The commands available with the first extension \pack{pict2e} to the
native \amb{picture} environment, maintain their names but do not
maintain the same restrictions; in particular there are the following
improvements.
\begin{enumerate}[noitemsep]
\item Lines and vectors are drawn as usual by \cs{put}ting in place
their forms, but their inclinations are not limited to a small set of
slope parameters, originally specified with reciprocally
prime single digit values not exceeding~6 for lines, and~4 for vectors;
the length of these sloped objects is still their horizontal component;
now, the slopes may be described with any signed fractional number not
exceeding $2^{30}-1$ in absolute value; it still is a limited number of
slopes, but their combinations are practically countless.
%
\item There is no restriction on the minimum length of lines and vectors.
%
\item Circles and dots can be drawn at any size, not at that dozen
or so finite sizes that were accepted with the original environment.
%
\item Ovals may be specified the corner curvature; the default
size of the quarter circles that make up the oval corners may be
specified; if no specification is given the radius of such corners
is the maximum that can fit into the oval; in practice it is
half the shortest value between the oval height and width.
\item The quadratic Bézier splines do not require the specification
of the number of dots that were used by the native environment to
draw “arbitrary” curves; now they are drawn with continuous curved
lines.
\end{enumerate}
Some new commands were added by \pack{pict2e}
\begin{enumerate}[noitemsep]
\item The third degree (cubic) Bézier splines are sort of new; certainly
now they are traced with continuous lines; if it is desired, it is
possible to replace the continuous line with a number of dots so as
to have a (unevenly) dotted curve. It suffices to specify the number
of dots the curve should be made with.
\item\cs{arc} and \cs{arc*} draw an arc or a filled circular sector,
with their centers at the axes origin; therefore they need to be put
in place somewhere else by means of the usual \cs{put} command.
\item The new command \cs{Line} traces a segment from one given point
to another point; it is very convenient to specify the end points
instead of the slope the line must have to go from the starting
to the ending point. The command does not require the \cs{put}
command to put the segment in place; nevertheless it can be shifted
somewhere else with \cs{put} if it becomes necessary.
\item The new command \cs{polyline} draws a sequence of connected
segments that form a piecewise linear “curve”; the way segments are
joined to one another depend from the “join” specifiers that
\pack{pict2e} has introduced; they will be described further on.
\item \cs{polygon} and \cs{polygon*} produce closed paths as it would
be possible when using \cs{polyline} and specifying its last point
coincident with its first one of that curve. If the asterisk is used
the closed path is filled with the default color.
\end{enumerate}
There were also the low level commands user interfaces to the various
drivers; these drivers really exist, but \pack{pict2e}
knows how to detect the correct language of the necessary driver;
the user is therefore allowed to pretend to ignore the existence
of such drivers, and s/he can simply use these low level commands; their
names are almost self explanatory.
\begin{enumerate}[noitemsep]
\item \cs{moveto} Sets the start of a line to an initial point.
\item \cs{lineto} traces a segment up to a specified point.
\item \cs{curveto} traces a third degree Bézier spline up to the third
specified point, while using the other two ones as control
points.\footnote{If these terms are unfamiliar, please, read the \pack{pict2e} documentation.}
\item \cs{circlearc} traces a circumference arc from the last line
point to a specified destination; its center, its angle amplitude, its
initial point are among the specified arguments, but the reader should
check on the \pack{pict2e} documentation for the details.
\item[]\mbox{\bfseries Warning!} Notice that these commands produce
just information to trace lines, but by themselves they do not trace
anything; in order to actually trace the curve or do other operations
with what has been done after the user finished describing the line to be
traced, the following low level commands must be used.
\item A \cs{closepath} is necessary if it is desired to
join the last position to the initial one. But if the last point
specified coincides with the very first one, a closed loop is
effectively already completed.
\item If a \cs{strokepath} command is used the line is drawn.
\item If a \cs{fillpath} command is used, the line loop is filled with
the current color. Notice, if the described line is not a closed loop,
this filling command acts as if the line first and last points were
joined by a straight line.
\end{enumerate}
While describing a line with the above low level commands, or with
the previous high level commands, lines and segments join and finish
as described hereafter; the following commands must be used before
actually tracing a specific line made up with several joined lines or
curves. Notice that their effect is just visible with lines as thin as
1\,pt, and very visible with thicker lines.
\begin{enumerate}[noitemsep]
\item \cs{buttcap} truncates each line with a sharp cut perpendicular
to the line axis exactly through the line end point (default).
\item \cs{roundcap} adds a semicircle to the very end of each line.
\item \cs{squarecap} adds a half square to the very end of each line.
\item \cs{miterjoin} joins two (generally straight) lines with a miter
(or mitre) joint; this means that the borders of the line are prolonged
until they meet; it is very nice when the junction angle is not far away
from, or is larger than $90^\circ$. Apparently for \pack{pict2e} this
type of joint is the default.
\item \cs{roundjoin} joins each (generally straight) line with
an arc on the external part of the bend; it is good in most
circumstances.
\item \cs{beveljoin} joins two (generally straight) lines with a miter
joint truncated with a sharp cut perpendicular to the bisector of the
lines axes; with acute angles it is better than the miter joint, but
when angles are very small, even this joint is not adequate.
\end{enumerate}
Notice that \cs{buttcap} is the default, but in general it might be
better to declare the \cs{roundcap} for the whole document.
We do not go further in the description of the new \pack{pict2e}
modified and new commands; the reader unfamiliar with programmable
drawing and the \pack{pic2e} extensions can consult that package
documentation. Actually all commands have been redefined or modified
by \pack{curve2e} in order to render them at least compatible with
both the cartesian and polar coordinates. In oder to have a better
understanding of these details, see figure~\ref{fig:joins}\footnote{The \cs{polyline} macro has the default join of type bevel; remember to specify a different join type if you want a different one.}.
\begin{figure}[!htb] \centering
\makebox[\textwidth]{\unitlength=0.009\textwidth
\begin{picture}(130,50)
\AutoGrid
\linethickness{4mm}
\buttcap\miterjoin
\put(10,10){\polyline[\miterjoin](0,0)(30,0)(30,30)
\put(0,-10){\makebox(30,10)[b]{\cs{buttcap},\cs{miterjoin}}}}
\roundcap\roundjoin
\put(50,10){\polyline[\roundjoin](0,0)(30,0)(30,30)
\put(0,-10){\makebox(30,10)[b]{\cs{roundcap},\cs{roundjoin}}}}
\squarecap\beveljoin
\put(90,10){\polyline(0,0)(30,0)(30,30)
\put(0,-10){\makebox(30,10)[b]{\cs{squarecap},\cs{beveljoin}}}}
\end{picture}}
\caption{Different caps and joins}\label{fig:joins}
\end{figure}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%>>>
\section{\pack{curve2e} extensions}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
Again we do not enter into the details, because the user can read the
new user manual \file{curve2e-manual.pdf} simply by entering and
executing the \verb|texdoc curve2e-manual| command into a terminal or
command prompt window; this new manual is available with version~2.2.0
(or higher) of \pack{curve2e} and it contains the extensions and sample
codes for (simple) sample drawings; some examples are not so simple, but
show the power of this package upgrade.
The most important two changes are $(a)$ the choice of different
coordinates for addressing points on the drawing canvas, and $(b)$
the possibility of using macros to identify specific points.
As already mentioned, such changes have been applied also to most,
if not all\footnote{I assume I have upgraded all such commands; if not,
please, send me a bug notice; I will acknowledge your contribution.}
commands defined by \pack{pict2e}.
\pack{curve2e} defines a lot of operations the user can do with
the point coordinates; this is done by assuming they are complex
numbers, or vectors, or roto\-amplification operators, and making
with such entities a lot of actions compatible with their “incarnation".
For example multiplying a vector by a roto\`amplification operator,
in spite the fact that internally they are both represented by ordered
pairs of (generally) fractional numbers, means simply obtaining a new
vector rotated and scaled with respect to the original one; the point
addressed by the first vector, becomes another point in a different
precise position.
Below you see several examples of usage of such commands; but here space
will be saved if a short list is made concerning these “complex number”
operations.
Remember the double nature of such complex numbers:
\[
z = x + \iu y = m\eu^{\iu \phi}
\]
therefore addition and subtraction are simply done with
\[
z_1 \pm z_2 = x_1 \pm x_2 +\iu (y_1 \pm y_2)
\]
Multiplications and divisions are simply done with
\begin{align*}
z_1 z_2 &=( m_1 m_2) \eu^{\iu(\phi_1 + \phi_2)} \\
z_1/z_2 &=( m_1/m_2) \eu^{\iu(\phi_1 - \phi_2)}
\end{align*}
Squares and square roots\footnote{The square root of a complex number
has two complex values; here we do not go into the details on how
\pack{curve2e} choses which value. In practice, the
\pack{curve2e} macros that use square roots, work mostly on scalars to
find magnitudes that are always positive.} are simply done with:
\begin{align*}
z^2 &= m^2\eu^{\iu 2\phi}\\
\sqrt{z} &= \sqrt{m}\eu^{\iu\phi/2}
\end{align*}
The complex conjugate of a complex number is shown with a superscript
asterisk:
\[\text{if } z= x+\iu y \text{ then } z^\star = x- \iu y\]
and from these simple formal rules many results can be obtained;
and therefore several macros have been defined.
But let us summarise. Here is a short list with a minimum of
explanation of the commands functionalities introduced by
\pack{curve2e}. The user notices that many commands rely on
a delimited argument command syntax; the first arguments can
generally be introduced with point macros, as well as numerical
coordinates (no matter if cartesian or polar ones) while
the output(s) should always be in form of point macro(s). Parentheses
for delimiting the ordered pairs or the point macros are seldom
required. On the other side, the variety of multiple optional
arguments, sometimes requires the use of different delimiters,
most often than not the signs~\texttt{<~>}, in addition to the
usual brackets. These syntax functionalities are available with the
\pack{xparse} and \pack{xfp} packages, that render the language~L3
very useful and effective.
Handling of complex numbers is done with the following commands.
New commands to draw special objects, are also described.
\begin{enumerate}[noitemsep]
%
\item Cartesian and polar coordinates; they are distinguished by
their separator; cartesian coordinates are the usual comma separated
pair \meta{$x,y$}; polar coordinates are specified with a colon
separated pair \meta{$\theta{:}\,\rho$}. In general they are
specified within parentheses, but some commands require them without
any parenthesis. In what follows a generic math symbol, such as for
example $P_1$, is used to indicate a complex number that addresses
a particular point, irrespective of the chosen coordinate type,
or a macro defined to contain those coordinates.
\item The complex number/vector operations already available with
\pack{curve2e} are the following; we specify “macro” because in general
macros are used, instead of explicit numerical values, but for input
vector macros it is possible to use the comma or colon separated ordered
pair; “versor” means “unit vector”; angles are always expressed in
degrees; output quantities are everything that follows the key word
\texttt{to}; output quantities are always supposed to be in the form
of control sequences.
\begin{itemize}\setfontsize{9.5}
\item \cs{MakeVectorFrom}\meta{number,number}\texttt{to}\meta{vector macro}
\item \cs{CopyVect}\meta{vector macro} \texttt{to}\meta{vector macro}
\item \cs{ModOfVect}\meta{vector macro} \texttt{to}\meta{modulus macro}
\item \cs{DirOfVect}\meta{vector macro} \texttt{to}\meta{versor macro}
\item \cs{ModAndDirOfVect}\meta{vector macro} \texttt{to}\meta{modulus macro} \texttt{and}\meta{versor macro}
\item \cs{ModAndAngleOfVect}\meta{vector macro} \texttt{to}\meta{modulus macro} \texttt{and}\meta{angle macro}
\item {\setfontsize{8.75}\cs{DistanceAndDirOfVect}\meta{$P_1$}
\texttt{minus}\meta{$P_2$} \texttt{to}\meta{distance macro}
\texttt{and}\meta{versor macro}}
\item \cs{XpartOfVect}\meta{vector macro} \texttt{to}\meta{numerical macro}
\item \cs{YpartOfVect}\meta{vector macro} \texttt{to}\meta{numerical macro}
\item \cs{DirFromAngle}\meta{angle macro} \texttt{to}\meta{versor macro}
\item \cs{ArgOfVect}\meta{vector macro} \texttt{to}\meta{angle macro}
\item \cs{ScaleVect}\meta{vector macro} \texttt{by}\meta{scale factor}
\texttt{to}\meta{vector macro}
\item \cs{ConjVect}\meta{vector macro} \texttt{to}\meta{conjugate vector macro}
\item \cs{SubVect}\meta{subtrahend vector} \texttt{from}\meta{minuend vector} \texttt{to}\meta{vector macro}
\item \cs{AddVect}\meta{1st vector} \texttt{and}\meta{2nd vector} \texttt{to}\meta{vector macro}
\item \cs{Multvect}\marg{1st vector}\meta{$\star$}\marg{2nd vector}\meta{$
\star$}\meta{output vector macro}\newline the asterisks are optional;
either one changes the \meta{2nd vector} into its complex conjugate
\item \cs{MultVect}\meta{1st vector}\meta{$\star$}\meta{2nd vector}
\texttt{to}\meta{vector macro}\newline discouraged; maintained for backward compatibility; the only optional asterisk changes the \meta{2nd vector} into its complex conjugate
\item \cs{Divvect}\marg{dividend vector}\marg{divisor vector}\marg{output
vector macro}
\item \cs{DivVect}\meta{dividend vector} \texttt{by}\meta{divisor vector}
\texttt{to}\meta{vector macro}\newline maintained for backwards
compatibility.
\end{itemize}
\item A new command \cs{segment}\parg{$P_1$}\parg{$P_2$} draws a line that
joins the specified points.
\item Command \cs{Dashline}\parg{$P_1$}\parg{$P_2$}\marg{dash and gap length}
draws a dashed line between the specified points; the
\meta{dash length} is specified as a coefficient of
\cs{unitlenth} so it is proportioned to the diagram scale. The gap
between dashes is just as wide as the dashes; they are recomputed by
the command in order to slightly adjust the \meta{dash and gap length} so
that the line starts at point $P_1$ with a dash, and ends at $P_2$
again with a dash.
\item Command \cs{Dotline}\parg{$P_1$}\parg{$P_2$}\marg{gap}\oarg{diameter}
traces a dotted line between the specified points with dots \meta{gap}
units apart, starting and ending with a dot at the specified points.
Optionally the absolute diameter of the dots may be specified: a
diameter of 1\,pt (default) is visible, but it might be too small;
a diameter of 1\,mm is really very black, and may be too large; if
the diameter is specified without dimensions they are assumed by
default to be typographic points.
\item Command \cs{polyline}, \cs{polygon} and \cs{polygon*} are redefined
to accept both coordinate kinds.
\item Commands \cs{VECTOR}\parg{$P_1$}\parg{$P_2$} and \cs{VVECTOR}, with the same syntax, draw vectors with one arrow tip at the end, or arrow tips at both ends respectively.
\item New commands \cs{Arc}\parg{center}\parg{start}\marg{angle} and,
with the same syntax, \cs{VectorArc} and \cs{VectorARC} draw
arcs with the specified \meta{center},
starting at point \meta{start}, with an aperture of \meta{angle}
degrees (not radians). \cs{Arc} draws the arc without arrow tips;
\cs{VectorArc} draws the arc with one arrow tip at the end point;
\cs{VectorARC} draws an arc with arrow tips at both ends. \cs{VVectorArc} is an alias of \cs{VectorARC}.
\item Command \cs{multiput} has been redefined to accept optional
arguments, besides the use of coordinates of both kinds. The new syntax
is the following:
\begin{ttsyntax}[\setfontsize{10.5}]
\cs{multiput}\oarg{shift}\parg{origin}\parg{step}\marg{number}\marg{object}\oarg{handler}
\end{ttsyntax}
where, if you neglect the first and the last (optional) arguments,
you have the original syntax; the \meta{origin} point is where the
first \meta{object} is placed; \meta{step} is the displacement of a
new \meta{object} relative to the previous one; \meta{number} is the
total number of \meta{object}s put in place by the command; it is
possible to specify the number trough an integer expression computed
with the \cs{inteval} function of the L3~language, accessed through
the \pack{xfp} package functionalities already included into the
\LaTeX kernel. The new features are \meta{shift}, that is used to
displace the whole drawing somewhere else (in case some fine tuning is
required), and \meta{handler}; the latter is a powerful means to control
both the object to be set in place and its position; further on there
will be examples that show that the object can be put not only on
straight paths, but also un other curves, including parabolas, circles,
and other shapes.
\item Another version of repetitive commands \cs{xmultiput} is very
similar to \cs{multiput} but the iterations are controlled in a
different way so that it is possible also to draw continuous
curves describing analytical functions even with parametric
equations. Further on there will be some examples.
\item The \pack{xfp} package is preloaded because not all functionalities have been made available in the \LaTeX\ kernel; among such functionalities two two are very important, i.e. the L3 “functions”, \cs{fpeval} and \cs{inteval}; the latter executes expressions on integer numbers containing the usual
operators \texttt{+, -, *, /}; the division quotient is rounded to the
nearest (positive or negative) integer. The former operates with real
fractional numbers and, in addition to the usual arithmetical operators
as \cs{inteval}, it can use many mathematical functions, from square
roots, to exponentials, logarithms, trigonometric and hyperbolic direct
and inverse functions\footnote{The implementation of inverse hyperbolic
functions at the moment is on the L3~Team “to do” list.}, plus other
ones. Normally fractional numbers are operated on decimal strings, with
16 fractional places, and 14 integer places but the L3~functions accept
also scientific notation. The user can specify truncation or rounding to
a specified number of digits. Such integer and fractional mathematical
operations are already integrated in most computations performed by
\pack{curve2e}.
\item \pack{curve2e} provides three more L3 functions: \cs{fptest}, \cs{fpwhiledo}, and \cs{fpdowhile} with the following syntax:
\begin{ttsyntax}
\cs{fptest}\marg{test}\marg{true}\marg{false}
\cs{fpdowhile}\marg{test}\marg{actions}
\cs{fowhiledo}\marg{test}\marg{actions}
\end{ttsyntax}
For all these macros the \meta{test} is a logical L3~expression; its
operands are logical constants, logical values, logical numeric
comparisons; its operators are the typical \texttt{||}, \texttt{\&\&},
and \texttt{!}, respectively for OR, AND, and NOT. The logical numerical
comparisons are mathematical constants or expressions connected with
relation operators, such as \texttt{>, =, <}; such operators may be
negated with the NOT operator; therefore, for example, \texttt{!>} means
“not greater than”, therefore “lower or equal to”; such operators may be
coupled, for example \texttt{>=} makes a valid comparison and it is equal
to \texttt{!<}.
\item The above tests are very useful to control both \cs{fptest} and
\cs{fpdowhile} and \cs{fpwhiledo}. The logical \meta{test} result lets
\cs{fptest} execute only the \meta{true} or the \meta{false} code.
Before using \cs{fpdowhile} or \cs{fpwhiledo} the \meta{test} expression
must be initialised to be \texttt{true}; the \meta{actions} should
contain some code to be iteratively executed, but they must contain some
assignments, typically a change in an iteration counter, such that
eventually the \meta{test} logical expression becomes \texttt{false}.
Lacking this assignments, the loop continues to infinity, or better,
until a fatal error message is issued that informs that the program
working memory is exhausted.
\item
The difference between \cs{fpdowhile} and \cs{fpwhiledo} is the order
in which the \meta{test} and the first\meta{action} are executed; in
facts \cs{fpdowhile} first does the \meta{action} then the \meta{test},
while \cs{fpwhiledo} first executes the \meta{test} then the
\meta{action}.
Since the modification of the test logical value is done by the commands
contained in the \meta{actions} this switching of the \meta{test} and
\meta{action} produces different results. By adjusting the \meta{test} it
is possible to get the same results, but the expressiveness of the
\meta{test} may be easier to understand in one way rather than the other.
Some of the examples show such different \meta{test} syntaxes.
\item Such new commands are already used to code the \cs{multiput} and
\cs{xmultiput} commands, but they are available also to the user who can
operate in a very advanced way; further on, some examples will show
certain advanced drawings.
\item General curves can be drawn by \pack{pic2e} command \cs{curve}
that is sort of difficult to use, because the user has to specify
also the control points of the third order Bézier splines. Some other
new commands are available with \pack{curve2e}, that are supposed
to be easier to use; they are described in the following items.
\item The new command \cs{Curve} joins a sequence of third order
splines by simply specifying the node-direction coordinates; i.e. at the
junction of two consecutive splines, in an interpolation node the
final previous spline tangent has the same direction as that
at the second spline first node; if a change of direction is required, an
optional new direction can be specified. Therefore this triplet of
information has the following syntax:
\begin{center}
\parg{node}\aarg{direction}\oarg{new direction}
\end{center}
Evidently the \meta{new direction} is specified only for the nodes
that correspond to a cusp. A variation of the command arguments is
available by optionally specifying the “looseness” of the curve:
\begin{center}
\parg{node}\aarg{direction\texttt{;}start\texttt{,}end}\oarg{\dots}
\end{center}
where \meta{start} is the spline starting “looseness” and \meta{end}
is the spline ending one. These (generally different) values
are an index of how far the control point is from the adjacent node.
With this functionality the user has a very good control on the curve
shape and curvature. The optional new direction at a cusp point has the
sane extended syntax
\item A similar command \cs{Qurve} works almost the same way, but it
traces a quadratic Bézier spline; this one is specified only with two
nodes an a single control point, therefore is less configurable than
cubic splines; the same final line may require several quadratic splines
when just a single cubic spline might do the same job. Notice also that
quadratic splines are just parabolic arcs, therefore without inflection
points, while a cubic spline can have one inflexion point.
\item A further advanced variation is obtained with the new
\cs{CurveBetween} command that creates a single cubic spline between two
given points with the following syntax:
\begin{flushleft}
\cs{CurveBetween}\meta{node1} \texttt{And}\meta{node2} \texttt{WithDirs}\meta{dir1}
\texttt{And}\meta{dir2}
\end{flushleft}
\item A similar variant command is defined with the following syntax:
\begin{flushleft}\ttfamily
\cs{CbezierBetween}\meta{node1} And\meta{node2} WithDirs\meta{dir1}
And\meta{dir2}\\
\qquad UsingDists\meta{dist1} And\meta{dist2}
\end{flushleft}
Usage examples are shown in section~\ref{sec:examples}
\end{enumerate}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
\section{ Euclidean geometry commands}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
%%%% In questa sezione ci vorrebbero esempi per ogni singolocomando!!!
With the already large available power of \pack{curve2e} there was a push
towards specialised applications; the first of which was, evidently,
geometry; that kind of geometry that was used in the ancient times when
mathematicians did not have available the sophisticated means they
have today; they did not even have a positional numerical notation, that
arrived in the “western world” we are familiar with, just by
the XI-XII century; before replacing the roman numbering system, another
couple of centuries passed by; real numbers with the notation we use
today with a decimal separator, had to wait till the XVI century (at
least); many things that naw are taught in elementary school were
still a sort of magic until the end of XVIII century.
Even a simple algebraic second degree equation was a problem.
In facts the Renaissance was the artistic period when the classical
proportions were brought back to the artists who could not solve the
simple equation where a segment of unit length is divided in two
unequal parts $x$ and $1-x$ such that the following proportion exists
among the various parts and the whole segment:
\[
\frac{x}{1} = \frac{1-x}{x} \Longrightarrow x = \frac{1}{x} - 1
\]
today we cam solve the problem by manipulating that simple proportion
to get
\[
x^2 + x -1 = 0
\]
and we know that the equation has two solution of opposite signs, and
that their magnitudes are the reciprocal of one another. Since we are
interested in their magnitudes, we adapt the solutions in the form
\begin{equation}
x_{1,2} = \frac{\sqrt{5} \pm 1}{2}= \sqrt{1+0.5^2}\pm 0.5 \Longrightarrow
\begin{cases}x_1=1.618\ldots\\x_2=0.618\ldots \end{cases}\label{equ:aureo}
\end{equation}
The larger number is called the \emph{golden number} and the smaller
one the \emph{golden section}.
Luca Pacioli, by the turn of centuries XV–XVI, was the tutor of
Guidu\-baldo, the son and heir of Federico di Montefeltro, Duke of
Urbino\footnote{If you never visited this Renaissance city and its Ducal
Palace, consider visiting it; it is one of the many UNESCO Heritage
places.}; he wrote the famous book \emph{De Diuina Proportione} that
contained also the theory of the golden section accompanied by beautiful
drawings of many Platonic solids and other non convex ones, drawn by
Leonardo da Vinci. Everything was executed with perfect etchings, even
the construction of the golden section; in its basic form\footnote{The
third formula in equation~\eqref{equ:aureo} is written in such a way as
to explain the graphical construction in figure~\ref{fig:aureo}.} it is
reproduced in figure~\ref{fig:aureo}.
\begin{figure}
\begin{Esempio}[\setfontsize{7}](0.40)
\unitlength=0.005\linewidth
\begin{picture}(170,140)(0,-70)
\AutoGrid
\VECTOR(0,0)(170,0)
\Pbox(170,0)[t]{x}[0]
\Pbox(100,0)[t]{\mathrm{1}}[2]
\Pbox(0,0)[r]{O}[2]
\Arc(100,0)(50,0){-90}
\segment(100,0)(100,70)
\segment(0,0)(100,50)
\Pbox(50,0)[tr]{\mathrm{0.5}}[2]
\ModAndAngleOfVect100,50 to\M and\A
\Arc(0,0)(\M,0){\A}\Pbox(\M,0)[bl]{C}[2]
\Arc(\M,0)(\M,-50){90}
\Arc(\M,0)(\M,-50){-90}
\Pbox(\fpeval{\M-50},0)[b]{\mathit{x_2}}[3]
\Pbox(\fpeval{\M+50},0)[b]{\mathit{x_1}}[3]
\put(\M,0){\Vector(-70:50)}
\Pbox(120,-25)[bl]{\mathit{r}=\mathrm{0.5}}[0]
\thicklines
\segment(0,0)(100,0)
\end{picture}
\end{Esempio}
\caption{The golden section $x_2$ and the golden number $x_1$}\label{fig:aureo}
\end{figure}
By the way figure~\ref{fig:aureo} shows also the code that is used
for the drawing done completely with the facilities available just with \pack{curve2e}. It is also a usage example of several commands.
Illiteracy was very widespread; books were expensive and were
common just in the wealthy people mansions.
Mathematicians in the classical times B.C. up to the artists in the
Renaissance, had no other means but to use geometrical constructions with
ruler and compass. Even today in schools where calculus is not yet
taught as a normal subject, possibly not in certain high school degree
courses, but certainly not in elementary and junior high schools, the
instructors have to recourse to geometrical constructions. Sometimes, as
in Italy, access to public universities is open with no restrictions to
all students with a high school diploma for degree courses that are
more vocational than cultural. Therefore such students in some university
degree courses have to frequent upgrading courses in order to master some
more mathematics compared to what they studied during their basic
education.
The instructors nowadays very often prepare some booklets with their
lessons; such documents, especially in electronic form, are a good help
for many students. And \LaTeX is used to write such documents.
Therefore this extension module is mostly dedicated to such instructors.
The contents of this module is not exhaustive; it just shows a way to
use the \pack{curve2e} facilities to extend it to be suited for the
kind of geometry they teach.
Here we describe the new commands provided by this package; then in
section~\ref{sec:examples} we show their usage by means of examples.
\begin{enumerate}[noitemsep]
%
\item Command \cs{polyvector} is simple extension of the \cs{polyline} command introduced by \pack{pict2e}: its syntax is identical to that of \cs{polyline}; it draws a polyline with an arrow tip at the last segment; it turns out to be very handy while drawing block diagrams. See figure~\ref{fig:vectors}.
%
\item Command \cs{IntersectionOfLines} is a fundamental one; its syntax is
the following:
\begin{ttsyntax}\setfontsize{9.5}%
\cs{IntersecionOfLines}\parg{point1}\parg{dir1} and\parg{point2}\parg{dir2} to\meta{vector}
\end{ttsyntax}
were each line is identified with its \meta{point} and its \emph{direction}; \meta{vector} is the complex number that identifies the coordinates of the intersection point; the intersection coordinates go to the output \meta{vector}.
\begin{Esempio}[\normalsize](0.40)
\unitlength=0.01\linewidth
\begin{picture}(100,30)
\AutoGrid
\Dashline(0,0)(100,30){2}
\Dashline(100,0)(0,30){2}
\IntersectionOfLines%
(0,0)(10,3)and%
(100,0)(-10,3)to\P
\Pbox(\P)[b]{P}[3]
\end{picture}
\end{Esempio}
%
\item A second command\cs{IntersectionOfSegments} does almost the same
work, but the coordinates of a segment end points define also its
direction, which is the argument of the difference of the terminal nodes
of each segment; the syntax therefore is the following:
\begin{ttsyntax}
\cs{IntersectionOfSegments}\parg{point11}\parg{point12}
\qquad and\parg{point21}\parg{point22}to\meta{intersection point}
\end{ttsyntax}
Again the intersection point coordinates go to the output \meta{intersection point}.
The first segment is between points 11 and 12, and, similarly, the second
segment is between points 21 and 22.
\begin{Esempio}[\normalsize](0.40)
\unitlength=0.01\linewidth
\begin{picture}(100,30)
\AutoGrid
\segment(0,0)(100,30)
\segment(0,30)(100,0)
\IntersectionOfSegments%
(0,0)(100,30)and%
(100,0)(0,30)to\P
\Pbox(\P)[b]{P}[3]
\end{picture}
\end{Esempio}
%
\item \label{item:CircleWithCenter}Another “intersection” command is
\cs{IntersectionsOfLine} to determine both intersections of a line
with a circle. The syntax is:
\begin{ttsyntax}
\cs{IntersectionsOfLine}\parg{point1}\parg{point2}
\qquad WithCircle\parg{center}\marg{radius}to\meta{int1} and\meta{int2}
\end{ttsyntax}
where \meta{point1} and \meta{point2} identify a segment joining such
points, and therefore a specific line with the segment direction
and passing through a given point; the segment should cross the circle;
this circle is identified with its
\meta{center} and \meta{radius}; the intersection points \meta{int1} and
\meta{int2} are the coordinates of the intersection points; if the line
and circle do not intersect, a warning message is issued, shown in the
console and written to the \file{.log} file; the intersection points are
assigned the default values \texttt{0,0}, which evidently produce strange
results in the output document, so as to remind the user to give a look
to the \file{.log} file and to review his/her data.
\begin{Esempio}[\normalsize](0.40)
\unitlength=0.01\linewidth\raggedleft
\begin{picture}(60,40)(-10,0)
\AutoGrid
\def\Radius{20}%
\Circlewithcenter 20,20 radius\Radius
\segment(10,0)(50,40)
\IntersectionsOfLine(10,0)(50,40)%
WithCircle(20,20)(20)%
to\Pu and\Pd
\Pbox(\Pu)[b]{P_1}[3]
\Pbox(\Pd)[l]{P_2}[3]
\end{picture}
\end{Esempio}
\medskip
%
\item It is difficult to numerically determine the coordinates of the
intersection points of two circles; it becomes easier if one of the
intersections is known; to this end, a macro to draw a circle with a
given center and passing through a given point is handy:
\begin{ttsyntax}
\cs{CircleThrough}\meta{point}WithCenter\marg{center}
\end{ttsyntax}
draws such circumference.\\[1ex]
\begin{Esempio}[\normalsize](0.40)
\unitlength=0.01\linewidth\raggedleft
\begin{picture}(60,40)
\AutoGrid
\CopyVect10,15to\P
\Pbox(\P)[tr]{P}[2]
\Pbox(30,20)[b]{C}[2]
\def\Ce{30,20}\relax
\CircleThrough\P WithCenter\Ce
\end{picture}
\end{Esempio}
\medskip
%
\item With the above macro it becomes easy to draw two circumferences
with different centers and passing through the same point; therefore
it becomes easy to determine the other intersection point by means of the
following macro:
\begin{ttsyntax}
\cs{Segment}\parg{endpoint1}\parg{endpoint2}SymmetricPointOf\meta{p1}
to\meta{p2}
\end{ttsyntax}
The computation is simple, because the second intersection is the
symmetrical point \meta{p2} of \meta{p1} with respect to the segment
that joins the centers of the given circles intersecting one another
in \meta{p1}.
The following small example displays how to find point $P_2$ symmetrical to $P_1$ with respect to a given line.\\[1ex]
\begin{Esempio}[\normalsize](0.40)
\raggedleft\unitlength=0.01\linewidth
\begin{picture}(60,30)
\AutoGrid
\segment(0,0)(60,30)
\CopyVect40,5to\Pu
\Segment(0,0)(60,30)%
SymmetricPointOf\Pu to\Pd
\Pbox(\Pu)[b]{P_1}[2]
\Pbox(\Pd)[t]{P_2}[2]
\end{picture}
\end{Esempio}
\medskip
%
\item It would be interesting to solve the same problem with help of
the following macro relating to right triangles identified with their
hypothenuse and one of its legs; the other leg is found by means of this
macro:
\begin{ttsyntax}
\cs{LegFromHypothenuse}\meta{length1} AndOtherLeg\meta{length2}
to\marg{length3}
\end{ttsyntax}
In facts, the intersection points of two circles define their common
chord; this chord and the two circle centers define two isosceles
triangles with the same base, the chord; therefore the segment joining
the circle centers, coincides with the chord axis and divides each
isosceles triangle in two right triangles, where the hypotenuse is one
of two radii and the first leg is the distance from the chord middle
point, intersection of the chord and the segment joining the circle
centers; at this point the distance of the second point intersection
from the chord middle point and the coordinates of the second
intersection may be easily computed; of course this is a much clumsier
way to determine the second intersection, but it is useful to solve this
right triangle easy problem. See figure~\ref{fig:2circle-intersections}
where such right triangle legs are used for several tasks.
%
\item Command \cs{ThreePointCircle} draws a circle that goes through three
given points; the syntax is the following:
\begin{ttsyntax}
\cs{ThreePointCircle}\meta{$\star$}\parg{point1}\parg{point2}\parg{point3}
\end{ttsyntax}
A sub product of this macro is formed by the vector \cs{C} that contains
the coordinates of the center of the circle, that might be useful even
if the circle is not drawn; the optional asterisk, if present, does not
draw the circle, but its center is available. See figure~\ref{fig:circumcenter}, where this construction has been used.
\item Alternatively
\begin{ttsyntax}\setfontsize{9.65}%
\cs{ThreePointCircleCenter}\parg{point1}\parg{point2}\parg{point3}to\meta{center vector}
\end{ttsyntax}
computes the three point circle center assigning its coordinates to
\meta{center vector}.
%
\item Command \cs{CircleWithCenter} draws a circle given its center and it
radius; in facts the syntax is the following:
\begin{ttsyntax}
\cs{CircleWithCenter}\meta{center} Radius\meta{Radius}
\end{ttsyntax}
This macro does not require the \cs{put} command to put the circle
in place; it is very handy when the radius value is saved into a macro. %
\item A similar macro \cs{Circlewithcenter} does almost the same; its
syntax is the following:
\begin{ttsyntax}
\cs{Circlewithcenter}\meta{center} radius\meta{radius}
\end{ttsyntax}
Apparently these two commands do the same, but, no, they behave
differently: in the former command the \meta{Radius} is a vector the
modulus of which is computed and used as the radius; in the latter
command the \meta{radius} is a scalar and (its magnitude) is directly
used. See item~\ref{item:CircleWithCenter} of this enumeration where this
command was used.
%
\item The command with syntax:
\begin{ttsyntax}
\cs{AxisOf}\meta{point1} and\meta{point2} to \meta{point3} and\meta{point4}
\end{ttsyntax}
is used to determine the axis of a segment; the given
segment is specified with its end points \meta{point1} and \meta{point2}
and the axis is determined by point \meta{point3} and \meta{point4};
actually \meta{point3} is the middle point of the given segment.\\[1ex]
\begin{Esempio}[\normalsize](0.40)
\raggedleft
\unitlength=0.01\linewidth
\begin{picture}(50,30)
\AutoGrid
\segment(10,0)(40,30)
\AxisOf 10,0 and 40,30 to\Pu\Pd
\Dashline(\Pu)(\Pd){1}
\Pbox(10,0)[br]{P_1}[2]
\Pbox(40,30)[tl]{P_2}[2]
\Pbox(\Pu)[tl]{P_3}[2]
\Pbox(\Pd)[t]{P_4}[2]
\end{picture}
\end{Esempio}
\medskip
%
\item These two commands with syntax:
\begin{ttsyntax}
\cs{SegmentCenter}\parg{point1}\parg{point2}to\meta{center}
\cs{MiddlePointOf}\parg{point1}\parg{point2}to\meta{center}
\end{ttsyntax}
determine just the middle point between two given points. They are
totally equivalent, aliases to one another; sometimes it is more
convenient to use a name, sometimes the other; it helps reading the
code and maintaining it.
%
\item Given a triangle and a specific vertex, it is possible to determine
the middle point of the opposite side; it is not very difficult, but it
is very handy to have all the necessary elements to draw the median line.
The simple syntax is the following:
\begin{ttsyntax}
\cs{TriangleMedianBase}\meta{vertex} on\meta{base1} and\meta{base2}
\qquad to\meta{base middle point}
\end{ttsyntax}
A similar command \cs{TriangleHeightBase} is used to determine the
intersection of the height segment from one vertex to the opposite side;
with triangles that have an obtuse angle, the height base might lay
externally to one of the bases adjacent to such an angle. The syntax is
the following
\begin{ttsyntax}
\cs{TriangleHeigthtBase}\meta{vertex} on\meta{base1} and\meta{base2} to\meta{height base}
\end{ttsyntax}
Similarly there is the \cs{TriangleBisectorBase} macro with
a similar syntax:
\begin{ttsyntax}
\cs{TriangleBisectorBase}\meta{vertex} on\meta{base1} and\meta{base2}
\qquad to\meta{bisector base}
\end{ttsyntax}
See figure~\ref{fig:MHBlines} that contains all three special lines: the median (M) the height (H) and the bisector (B) lines.%%%%!!!!!!!!!
%
\item A triangle \emph{barycenter} is the point where its median lines
intersect; command \cs{TriangleBarycenter} determines its coordinates
with the following syntax.
\begin{ttsyntax}
\cs{TriangleBarycenter}\parg{vertex1}\parg{vertex2}\parg{vertex3} to\meta{barycenter}
\end{ttsyntax}
%
\item A triangle \emph{orthocenter} is the point where its height lines
intersect; command \cs{TriangleOrthocenter} determines its coordinates
with the following syntax:
\begin{ttsyntax}
\cs{TriangleOrthocenter}\parg{vertex1}\parg{vertex2}\parg{vertex3} to\meta{orthocenter}
\end{ttsyntax}
%
\item A triangle \emph{incenter} is the point where its bisector lines
intersect; command \cs{TriangleIncenter} determines its coordinates
with the following syntax:
\begin{ttsyntax}
\cs{TriangleIncenter}\parg{vertex1}\parg{vertex2}\parg{vertex3} to\meta{incenter}
\end{ttsyntax}
%
\item The distance of a specified point from a given segment or line is
computed with the following command
\begin{ttsyntax}
\cs{DistanceOfPoint}\meta{point} from\parg{point1}\parg{point2} to\meta{distance}
\end{ttsyntax}
where \meta{point} specifies the point and \meta{point1} and \meta{point2}
identify two points on a segment or a line; \meta{distance} is a scalar
value.
%
\item In a construction that will be examined in section~\ref{sec:examples}
we need to determine an ellipse axis if the other axis and the focal
distance are know; actually it solves the relation
\begin{equation}a^2= b^2 +c^2\label{equ:axes-foci}\end{equation}
that connects such three quantities; $a$ is always the largest of the
three quantities; therefore the macro tests if the first entry is larger
than the second one: if is is, it computes a Pytagorean difference,
otherwise the user should pay attention to use as the first entry the
smaller among $b$ and $c$, so as to compute a Pytagorean sum. The command
is the following:
\begin{ttsyntax}
\cs{AxisFromAxisAndFocus}\meta{axis or focus} and\meta{focus or axis}
\qquad to\meta{other axis or focus}
\end{ttsyntax}
The word “axis” stands for “semi axis length”; the word “focus" stands
for “focal semi distance”; actually the macro works equally well with
full lengths, instead of half lengths; it is important not to mix
full and half lengths. Such lengths are expressed as factors of
\cs{unitlength}, not as absolute values. This command is described
again when dealing with the specific problem referred to at the
beginning of this list item; the description is going to be more
detailed and another macro is added to avoid possible errors.\\[1ex]
\begin{Esempio}[\setfontsize{9.25}](0.40)
\raggedleft\unitlength=0.01\linewidth
\begin{picture}(80,60)(-40,-30)
\AutoGrid
\ellisse{40}{30}
\CopyVect\fpeval{sqrt(700)},0to\Focus
\segment(0,0)(0,30)
\segment(0,0)(\Focus)
\segment(\Focus)(0,30)
\Pbox(0,0)[tr]{O}[2]
\Pbox(\Focus)[t]{F}[2]
\Pbox(0,15)[r]{b}[0pt]
\Pbox(15,0)[t]{c}[0pt]
\Pbox(14,14)[bl]{a}[0pt]
\end{picture}
\end{Esempio}
\medskip
%
\item Given a segment, i.e. the coordinates of its end points, it is
useful to have a macro that computes its length; at the same time it is
useful to to compute its direction; this operation is not the same as to
compute modulus and argument of a vector, but consists in computing such
quantities from the difference of the vectors pointing to the segment
end points. Possibly better names should be devised for such macros, for
example \cs{DistanceBetweenPoints...} and \cs{AngleOf..} But I could not
find anything really more expressive. These two macros are the
following:
\begin{ttsyntax}
\cs{SegmentLength}\parg{point1}\parg{point2} to\meta{length}
\cs{SegmentArg}\parg{point1}\parg{point2} to\meta{angle}
\end{ttsyntax}
The \meta{angle} is computed in the interval $-180^\circ < \phi \leq
+180^\circ$; it represents the with respect to the positive real axis of
the vector that goes from \meta{point1} to \meta{point2}, therefore the
user must pay attention to the order s/he enters the end point
coordinates.
%
\item The next command \cs{SymmetricalPointOf} is used to find the
reflection of a specified point with respect to a fixed point; of course
the latter is the middle point of the couple, but the unknown to be
determined is not the center of a segment, but one of its end points.
The syntax is the following: In a sense this macro completes the \cs{AxisOf} by finding the other extremity of the axis.
\begin{ttsyntax}
\cs{SymmetricalPointOf}\meta{point1} respect\meta{fixed} to\meta{point2}
\end{ttsyntax}
%
\item Command \cs{RegPolygon} draws a regular polygon inscribed within
a circle of given radius and center, with a specified number of sides;
optional arguments allow to specify color and thickness of the sides,
or the polygon interior color; this macro operates differently from the
one for drawing ellipses, that draws simultaneously an ellipse with
the border of a color and the interior of another one; with this macro
the user who wants to achieve this effect must superimpose to polygons
with different settings; but it would not be too difficult to arrange a
new macro or to modify this one in order to get “bicolor” polygons.
It is not necessary for the purpose of this package, therefore we
let the user express his/her phantasy by creating other macros. The
actual syntax is the following:
\begin{ttsyntax}
\cs{RegPolygon}\meta{$\star$}\parg{center}\marg{radius}\marg{sides}\oarg{angle}\aarg{settings}
\end{ttsyntax}
The initial optional asterisk specifies if the interior has to be
coloured; if yes, the \meta{settings} refer to the color of the
interior; if not, the \meta{settings} refer to the thickness and
color of the sides; no \meta{settings} imply sides drawn with the
default line thickness, generally the one corresponding to \cs{thinlines},
and the default color (generally black) for the sides or the interior.
By default the first vertex is set to an angle of $0^\circ$ with
respect to the \meta{center}; the optional \meta{angle} modifies
this value to what is necessary for a particular polygon. The
\meta{center} itself is optional, in the sense that if it is not
specified the center lays in the origin of the \env{picture} axes; if
this argument is specified, the polygon center is displaced accordingly.
The number of sides in theory may be very high, but it is not wise
to exceed a couple of dozen sides; if the number of sides is too
high, a polygon (completely contained in an A4 page) may become
undistinguishable from a circumference.
Some examples are shown in figures~\ref{fig:pentagon}
and~\ref{fig:filled-pentagon}.
%
\item {\tolerance=3000 Several macros are dedicated to ellipses; their names are spelled
in Italian, “ellisse”, because the name “ellipse” is already taken by
other packages; with Italian command names there should be no
interference with other packages, or the risk is reduced to
a minimum. The various macros are \cs{ellisse}, \cs{Sellisse},
\cs{Xellisse}, \cs{XSellisse}, \cs{EllisseConFuoco} \cs{EllisseSteiner};
the last two control sequence names are aliased with the corresponding
English ones \cs{EllipseWithFocus} and \cs{SteinerEllipse}. For the
other four ones it is wise to avoid English names for the reasons
explained above. After all the Italian and the English names are very
similar and are pronounced almost identically.\par}
{\tolerance=3000 Actually \cs{ellisse} is practically a shorthand for
\cs{Sellisse} because some optional arguments are already fixed, but the
meaning of \cs{fillstroke} depends on the presence or absence of an
initial asterisk; similarly \cs{Xellisse} is a sort of a shorthand for
\cs{XSellisse}; in facts those commands, that contain an ‘S’ in their
names, can optionally perform also the affine \emph{shear}
transformation, while those without the ‘S’ do not execute such
transformation. Figure~\ref{fig:shear} displays a normal ellipse with
its bounding rectangle, and the same ellipse to which the shear affine
transformation is applied; the labeled points represent the third order
Bézier spline nodes and control points.\par}
\begin{figure}[!htb]
\dimendef\Wmp=2000 \Wmp=\dimexpr(\textwidth-\columnsep)/2\relax
\begin{minipage}{\Wmp}\centering
\unitlength=0.007\linewidth
\begin{picture}(100,70)(-50,-35)
\XSellisse(0,0){50}{25}*
\end{picture}
\end{minipage}
\hfill
\begin{minipage}{\Wmp}\centering
\unitlength=0.007\linewidth
\begin{picture}(100,70)(-50,-35)
\XSellisse(0,0)<20>{50}{25}*
\end{picture}
\end{minipage}
\caption{The effect of shearing an ellipse with its bounding rectangle}\label{fig:shear}
\end{figure}
%
\item The syntax of those six commands are the following:
\begin{ttsyntax}
\cs{Sellisse}\meta{$\star$}\marg{semiaxis-h}\marg{semiaxis-v}\oarg{shear}
\cs{ellisse}\meta{$\star$}\marg{semiaxis-h}\marg{semiaxis-v}
\cs{XSellisse}\meta{$\star$}\parg{center}\oarg{angle}\%
\qquad \aarg{shear}\marg{semiaxis-h}\marg{semiaxis-v}\meta{$\star$}\%
\qquad \oarg{settings1}\oarg{settings2}
\cs{Xellisse}\meta{$\star$}\parg{center}\oarg{angle}\marg{semiaxis-h}\%
\qquad\marg{semiaxis-v}\oarg{settings1}\marg{settings2}
\cs{EllipseWithFocus}\meta{$\star$}\parg{vertex1}\parg{vertex2}\parg{vertex3}\parg{focus}
\cs{SteinerEllipse}\meta{$\star$}\parg{vertex1}\parg{vertex2}\parg{vertex3}\oarg{diameter}
\end{ttsyntax}
All require the semi axis lengths; the \meta{semiaxis-h} and
\meta{semiaxis-v} refer to the semi axes before possible rotation by
\meta{angle} degrees, and do not make assumptions on which axis is the
larger one. The optional parameter \meta{shear} is the angle in degrees
by which the vertical coordinate lines are slanted by effect of shearing.
If \meta{shear}, that by default equals zero, is not set
to another value, the asterisks of command \cs{Sellisse} and
\cs{XSellisse} do not have any effect. Otherwise the asterisk of
\cs{Sellisse} forces to draw the ellipse bounding box (rectangle before
shearing, parallelogram after shearing) as shown together with some
marked special points (the vertices, spline nodes and control points
of the quarter circle or quarter ellipse Bézier splines) in
figure~\ref{fig:shear}.
For \cs{ellisse} the asterisk implies filling, instead of stroking the
ellipse contour.
The \meta{setting}~1 and~2 refer to the color filling and/or border
color, and contour thickness, as already explained. For the
\cs{EllipseWithFocus}, the \meta{focus} contains the coordinates
of one of the two ellipse foci; such coordinates should point to
some position \emph{inside} the triangle. The \cs{SteinerEllipse}
requires less data, in the sense that such ellipse is unique; it
is the ellipse internally tangent to the triangle at its side middle
points. See detailed examples in the following section.
%
\end{enumerate}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
\section{Examples}\label{sec:examples}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
Here we can show some examples of the advanced \pack{curve2e} commands
and of what can be done with this \pack{euclideangeometry} extension.
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
\subsection{Straight and curved vectors}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
Figure~\ref{fig:vectors} shows some vectors and vector arcs with the
code used to draw them; some points are described with cartesian
coordinates and some with polar ones.
\begin{figure}[!htb]
\begin{Esempio}[\setfontsize{8.5}](0.45)
\unitlength=0.01\linewidth
\begin{picture}(100,60)
\AutoGrid
\put(0,30){\vector(1,2){10}}
\put(20,30){\Vector(10,20)}
\VECTOR(40,30)(50,50)
\VVECTOR(60,30)(70,60)
\Arc(100,60)(100,40){-90}
\VectorArc(0,0)(0:20){90}
\VectorARC(100,0)(0:80){-90}
\polyvector(30,0)(35,10)(55,20)(60,0)
\end{picture}
\end{Esempio}
\caption{Some vectors and vector arcs}\label{fig:vectors}
\end{figure}
\begin{figure*}[!tb]
\begin{Esempio}*[\setfontsize{10}](0.40)
\centering
\unitlength=0.006\linewidth\begin{picture}(120,90)
%
\RegPolygon(9,20){20}{6}<\linethickness{3pt}\color{red}>
\RegPolygon(55,20){20}{7}[90]
\RegPolygon(100,20){20}{8}[22.5]<\linethickness{0.5ex}\color{blue}>
%
\put(0,50){%
\RegPolygon(9,20){20}{3}\RegPolygon(9,20){20}{3}[30]
\RegPolygon(9,20){20}{3}[60]\RegPolygon(9,20){20}{3}[90]
%
\RegPolygon*(55,20){20}{4}<\color{green}>
\RegPolygon(55,20){20}{4}<\linethickness{1ex}>
%
\RegPolygon*(100,20){20}{4}[45]<\color{orange}>
\RegPolygon(100,20){20}{4}[45]<\linethickness{1ex}\color{blue}>
}
\end{picture}
\end{Esempio}
\caption{A variety of polygons and their codes}\label{fig:variety-of-polygons}
\end{figure*}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
\subsection{Polygons}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
Figures~\ref{fig:pentagon} and~\ref{fig:filled-pentagon} display
a normal and a color filled pentagon with their codes.
Figure~\ref{fig:variety-of-polygons} shows a variety of polygons
with their codes.
\begin{figure}[!htb]
\begin{Esempio}[\setfontsize{10}](0.8)
\unitlength=0.5mm
\begin{picture}(40,32)(-20,-17)
\polyline(90:20)(162:20)(234:20)(306:20)(378:20)(90:20)
\end{picture}
\end{Esempio}
\caption{A normal polygon drawn with \cs{polyline}}
\label{fig:pentagon}
\end{figure}
\begin{figure}[!htb]
\begin{Esempio}[\setfontsize{10}](0.8)
\unitlength=.5mm
\begin{picture}(40,32)(-20,-20)
\color{magenta}
\polygon*(90:20)(162:20)(234:20)(306:20)(378:20)
\end{picture}
\end{Esempio}
\caption{A filled polygon drawn with \cs{polygon}}
\label{fig:filled-pentagon}
\end{figure}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
\subsection{Dashed and dotted lines}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
For dashed lines it is mandatory to specify the dash length, that
is just as long as the gap between dashes. For dotted lines it is
mandatory to specify the dot gap.
For dotted lines it is also possible to specify the dot size;
it can be specified with an explicit unit of measure, or, if no unit is
specified, it is assumed to be “points”. The \cs{Dotline} takes care
of transforming the implied or the explicit dimension in multiples of
\cs{unitlength}. Figure~\ref{fig:DashDot} shows some examples with their
codes.
\begin{figure}[!htb]
\begin{Esempio}[\setfontsize{10}](0.45)
\unitlength=0.02\linewidth
\begin{picture}(40,40)
\AutoGrid
\Dashline(0,0)(40,10){4}
\put(0,0){\circle*{1}}
\Dashline(40,10)(0,25){4}
\put(40,10){\circle*{1}}
\Dashline(0,25)(20,40){4}
\put(0,25){\circle*{1}}
\put(20,40){\circle*{1}}
\Dotline(0,0)(40,40){2}[2]
\end{picture}
\end{Esempio}
\caption{Dashed and dotted lines}\label{fig:DashDot}
\end{figure}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
\subsection{Generic curves}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
With the \cs{Curve} macro it is possible to make line art or filled shapes. The hearts drawn in figure~\ref{fig:hearts} show the same shape, the first just stroked and the second color filled.
\begin{figure}[!htb]
\begin{Esempio}[\setfontsize{9}](0.65)
\unitlength=8mm\relax
\begin{picture}(5,5)
\put(0,0){\framebox(5,5){}}\thicklines\roundcap
\Curve(2.5,0)<0.1,1>(5,3.5)<0,1>%
(4,5)<-1,0>(2.5,3.5)<-0.01,-1.2>[-0.01,1.2]%
(1,5)<-1,0>(0,3.5)<0,-1>(2.5,0)<0.1,-1>
\end{picture}
\end{Esempio}
\vspace*{2\baselineskip}
\begin{Esempio}[\setfontsize{9}](0.65)
\unitlength=8mm\relax
\begin{picture}(5,5)
\put(0,0){\framebox(5,5){}}\thicklines\roundcap
\color{orange}\relax
\Curve*(2.5,0)<0.1,1>(5,3.5)<0,1>%
(4,5)<-1,0>(2.5,3.5)<-0.01,-1.2>[-0.01,1.2]%
(1,5)<-1,0>(0,3.5)<0,-1>(2.5,0)<0.1,-1>
\end{picture}
\end{Esempio}
\caption{A stroked and a filled heart shaped contour}
\label{fig:hearts}
\end{figure}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
\subsection{The \cs{multiput} command}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
The new \cs{multiput} and \cs{xmultiput} commands are extensions of the
original \cs{multiput} macro; both are used to put a number of objects
according to a discrete law; but they can produce surprising effects.
Figure~\ref{fig:multiput} displays several examples. As it possible
to see, the black dots are evenly distributed along the canvas diagonal;
the green filled squares are along a sloping down line inclined by
$15^\circ$ as specified by the polar coordinates of the \meta{increment};
the blue filled triangles are distributed along a parabola; the red
stroked diamonds are distributed along a half sine wave.\enlargethispage*{\baselineskip}
\noindent\begin{figure}[!htb]
\begin{Esempio}[\setfontsize{8}](0.55)
\unitlength=0.01\linewidth
\begin{picture}(100,100)
\AutoGrid
\multiput(0,0)(10,10){11}{\circle*{2}}
\color{blue!70!white}
\multiput(0,0)(10,0){11}{%
\RegPolygon*{2}{3}<\color{blue!70!white}>}%
[\GetCoord(\R)\X\Y
\edef\X{\fpeval{\X+10}}
\edef\Y{\fpeval{(\X/10)**2}}
\CopyVect\X,\Y to\R]
\multiput(0,0)(10,1){11}{%
\RegPolygon{2}{4}<\color{magenta}>}%
[\GetCoord(\R)\X\Y
\edef\X{\fpeval{\X+10}}
\edef\Y{\fpeval{sind(\X*1.8)*100}}
\CopyVect\X,\Y to\R]
\multiput(50,50)(-15:5){11}{%
\RegPolygon*{2}{4}[45]<\color{green!60!black}>}
\end{picture}
\end{Esempio}
\caption{Some examples of the \meta{handler} optional argument}
\label{fig:multiput}
\end{figure}
Another interesting construction is a clock quadrant; this is shown
in figure~\ref{fig:orologio}
\begin{figure}[!htb]
\begin{Esempio}[\setfontsize{9.5}](0.525)
\unitlength=0.0095\linewidth
\begin{picture}(100,100)
\AutoGrid
\put(50,50){\thicklines\circle{100}}
\xmultiput[50,50](60:35)(-30:1){12}%
{\makebox(0,0){\circle*{2}}}%
[\MultVect\R by\D to\R]%
\xmultiput[50,50](60:40)(-30:1){12}%
{\ArgOfVect\R to\Ang
\rotatebox{\fpeval{\Ang-90}}%
{\makebox(0,0)[b]{%
\Roman{multicnt}}}}%
[\Multvect{\R}{\D}\R]
\thicklines\put(50,50){\circle*{4}}
\put(50,50){\Vector(37.5:30)}
\put(50,50){\Vector(180:33)}
\end{picture}
\end{Esempio}
\caption{Usage example of the \texttt{\string\xmultiput} command}
\label{fig:orologio}
\end{figure}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
\subsection{Drawing mathematical functions}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
Figure~\ref{fig:iperbole} shows an equilateral hyperbola; since it
has asymptotes, the drawing must be carefully done avoiding overflows,
and parts of drawing out of the \env{picture} area. Nevertheless
the possibility of describing mathematical functions in terms of L3
functions (in spite of the same name, they are completely different
things) makes it possible to exploit the \meta{settings} argument to
do the job with \cs{xmultiput}.
\begin{figure*}[!tp]
\begin{Esempio}[\setfontsize{9}](0.5)
\unitlength=0.008\linewidth
\begin{picture}(100,100)
\AutoGrid
\VECTOR(0,0)(100,0)\Pbox(100,0)[tr]{x}[0]
\VECTOR(0,0)(0,100)\Pbox(0,100)[tr]{y}[0]
\Pbox(0,0)[r]{O}[3pt]
\thicklines
\moveto(10,100)\countdef\I=2560 \I=11
\xmultiput(0,0)(1,0){101}%
{\lineto(\I,\fpeval{1000/\I})}%
[\advance\I by1 \value{multicnt}=\I]
\strokepath
\end{picture}
\end{Esempio}
\caption{An equilateral hyperbola drawn with a thinly sampled piecewise
continuous line}\label{fig:iperbole}
\end{figure*}
A more complicated drawing can be done by expressing the function to draw
with parametric equations; the idea is to code the math formulas
\[\begin{cases}
x(t) = f_1(t)\\
y(t) = f_2(t)
\end{cases}\]
because it is easy to code the $x$ and the $y$ component and use the
\cs{fpdowhile} command to trace the curve with a piecewise continuous
line; actually a continuous line with a piecewise continuous derivative;
it is important to sample the curve in a sufficiently dense way.
A heart shaped mathematical function taken from the internet%
\footnote{\url{http://mathworld.wolfram.com/HeartCurve.html} reports
several formulas, including the cardioid, but the one we use here is
a different function.} is the following
\begin{align*}
x(t) &= \sin^3(t)\\
y(t) &= \dfrac{13\cos(t)-5\cos(2t)-2\cos(3t)-\cos(4t)}{16}
\end{align*}
Figure~\ref{fig:math-heart} displays the graph, and its code, and, most
important, the L3 definition of the parametric equations. Compared to
the previous equations we applied a scale factor and added the final
term \texttt(2.4) in order to shift a little bit the drawing so as to
vertically center it .
\begin{figure*}[!tbp]
\begin{minipage}{\textwidth}
\def\codefraction{0.5}
\dimendef\Wuno=2000 \Wuno=\codefraction\textwidth
\dimendef\Wdue=2002 \Wdue=\dimexpr\textwidth-\columnsep-\Wuno\relax
\begin{minipage}{\Wuno}\setfontsize{6.9}%
\begin{verbatim}
% Parametric equations of the "heart"
\providecommand\heart[3]{%
\edef\X{\fpeval{#1*16*(sind(#2)^3)}}
\edef\Y{\fpeval{#1*(13*cosd(#2) - 5*cosd(2*#2)
- 2*cosd(3*#2) -cosd(4*#2)+2.4)}}
\CopyVect\X,\Y to#3}
%
% Drawing
\unitlength=0,005\linewidth
\begin{picture}(200,200)(-100,-100)
\AutoGrid
\VECTOR(-100,0)(100,0)\Pbox(100,0)[tr]{x}[0]
\VECTOR(0,-100)(0,100)\Pbox(0,100)[tl]{y}[0]
\Pbox(0,0)[tr]{O}\linethickness{1pt}\bgroup
\edef\scala{\fpeval{100/16}}
\countdef\I=2560 \I=0\roundjoin
\fpdowhile{\I !>360}{\heart\scala\I\Punto
\ifnum\I=0 \moveto(\Punto)\else \lineto(\Punto)\fi
\advance\I by 3}\strokepath\egroup
\end{picture}\end{verbatim}
\end{minipage}
\hfill
\begin{minipage}{\Wdue}\raggedleft
\setfontsize{8}%
%
\providecommand\heart[3]{%
\edef\X{\fpeval{#1*16*(sind(#2)^3)}}
\edef\Y{\fpeval{#1*(13*cosd(#2) - 5*cosd(2*#2)
- 2*cosd(3*#2) -cosd(4*#2)+2.4)}}
\CopyVect\X,\Y to#3}
%
\unitlength=0,005\linewidth
\begin{picture}(200,200)(-100,-100)
\AutoGrid
\VECTOR(-100,0)(100,0)\Pbox(100,0)[tr]{x}[0]
\VECTOR(0,-100)(0,100)\Pbox(0,100)[tl]{y}[0]
\Pbox(0,0)[tr]{O}\linethickness{1pt}\bgroup
\edef\scala{\fpeval{100/16}}
\countdef\I=2560 \I=0\roundjoin
\fpdowhile{\I !>360}{\heart\scala\I\Punto
\ifnum\I=0 \moveto(\Punto)\else \lineto(\Punto)\fi
\advance\I by 3}\strokepath\egroup
\end{picture}
\end{minipage}
\end{minipage}
\caption{A heart shaped mathematical function drawn with a thinly sampled
piecewise continuous line}\label{fig:math-heart}
\end{figure*}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
\subsection{ Intersections involving circles}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
Determining the intersection of two circles is difficult; algebraically it requires the solution of second degree equations whose coefficients are sort of complicated expressions of the centers and radii; furthermore such equations might not have real roots. The problems are much simpler even geometrically when one circle is intersected by a line, and when two circles share a common point. In the first case there are two intersections, possibly coincident, if the centers distance is shorter than the sum of their radii; in the second case its easy to determine the chord common to both circles and the problem of finding the second intersection becomes that of finding the second end point of the chord.
Figure~\ref{fig:circle-and-line} shows the simple geometrical construction that leads to the determination of the intersections; one of the lines is tangent to the circle and the intersection points $P_3$ and $P_4$ coincide.
\begin{figure}[!htb]
\begin{Esempio}[\setfontsize{9}](0,40)
\unitlength=0.007\linewidth
\begin{picture}(100,100)
\AutoGrid
\IntersectionsOfLine(100,50)(0,20)%
WithCircle(40,40){30}to\Puno and\Pdue
\Pbox(\Puno)[tl]{P_1}[2]
\Pbox(\Pdue)[t]{P_2}[2]
\Dotline(\C)(\Pt){2}[1.5]
\Dotline(\C)(\Pq){2}[1.5]
\Pbox(\Int)[t]{M}[2]
\Dotline(\C)(\Int){2}[1.5]
%
\IntersectionsOfLine(0,70)(100,70)%
WithCircle(40,40){30}to\Ptre and\Pquat
\Pbox(\Ptre)[bl]{P_3}[2]
\Pbox(\Pquat)[br]{P_4}[2]
\IntersectionsOfLine(0,40)(100,100)%
WithCircle(40,40){30}to\Pcin and\Psei
\Pbox(\Pcin)[br]{P_5}[2]
\Pbox(\Psei)[t]{P_6}[2]
\end{picture}
\end{Esempio}
\caption{Intersection of a circle with several lines}\label{fig:circle-and-line}
\end{figure}
Figure~\ref{fig:two-intersecting-circles} shows the geometrical construction to determine the second intersection point $P_2$ of two circles that already have a first common point $P_1$. The common chord and the segment joining the centers are not shown, but the code, although with “strange” point names, shows all the steps necessary to find the second intersection point
\begin{figure}[!htb]\centering
\begin{Esempio}[\setfontsize{9}](0.40)
\unitlength0.007\linewidth
\begin{picture}(100,100)
\AutoGrid
\edef\PCCuno{30,40}
\edef\PCCdue{70,60}
\edef\PCCzero{40,55}
\Pbox(\PCCuno)[t]{C_1}[2]
\Pbox(\PCCdue)[t]{C_2}[2]
\Pbox(\PCCzero)[l]{P_1}[2.5]
\CircleThrough\PCCzero WithCenter\PCCuno
\CircleThrough\PCCzero WithCenter\PCCdue
\Segment(\PCCuno)(\PCCdue)%
SymmetricPointOf\PCCzero to\PCCquat
\Pbox(\PCCquat)[l]{P_2}[2.5]
\end{picture}
\end{Esempio}
\caption{Second intersection point $P_2$ of two circles sharing a first intersection point $P_1$}\label{fig:two-intersecting-circles}
\end{figure}
The following macro allows to determine both intersections, if they exist, of two generic circles; of course the macro is a little more complicated than the above macro that has to find the second intersection when one is already known. Even the reasoning behind the macro is quite different and slightly “creative”.
In facts the reasoning is to avoid any or most analytical computations; analytically it would be quite simple to set up a system of two second degree polynomial equations; after processing such a system it is necessary to solve a second degree equation, but in order to control if there are intersections it should be necessary to discuss the value and sign of the discriminant; it is nothing special when doing all this by hand, but it involves a complicated code in terms of the \LaTeX\ language.
It is much simpler to reason geometrically; imagine to draw two circles; let $a>0$ be the distance of their centers\footnote{If $a=0$ the circles are concentric and do not intersect.}, and let $R_1$ and $R_2$ be their radii. Then if
\[
|R_1 - R_2| \leq a \leq R_1 + R_2
\]
the intersections do exist, even if it is possible that the circles are tangent to one another and the two intersection points become a (double) one; this takes place when either ‘equals’ sign applies. If the left boundary is not satisfied the centers are too close to one another and the internal circle is too small compared to the external one. On the opposite if the upper bound is not satisfied the second circle is outside the first one and too far away.
The macro controls the above range, and if the the input data do not satisfy the range boundaries, there are no intersections: a warning message is issued, but computations go on with non sense values for both output coordinates; may be other errors are produced, but in any case the successive drawing lines will not be acceptable; a good sign to the user who may have not noticed the warning message in his/her console, but is immediately “forced” to consult this manual and find out this explanation; s/he will then review his/her code in oder to change the drawing data.
If the data cope with the above range, the computations go on along this simple reasoning, that it drawn in the left part of figure~\ref{fig;Intersections-of-two-circles}. There you see the segment that joins the two centers, and the intersection points to be found. They are the end points of the chord common to both circles; using as vertices the two centers and such chord as the base, two isosceles triangles are formed; the segment joining the centers bisects both triangles forming four right triangles where the hypotenuse is formed by the pertinent radius, and one leg is half the chord; with reference to the triangles $IC_1P_1$ and $IC_2P_1$, Pythagoras' theorem lets us determine the relation between the common leg $IP_1$ and the other triangle sides; this is the small analytical computation we have to execute, so as to compute the distance $c$ from the center $C_1$ and the common leg length $h$. These two values are sufficient, together with the direction of segment $C_1C_2$ to find the intersection points coordinates.
The syntax il the following
\begin{ttsyntax}
\cs{TwoCirclesIntersections}\parg{C1}\parg{C2}withradii\marg{R1} and\marg{R2} to\meta{P1} and\meta{P2}
\end{ttsyntax}
The symbols are self explanatory; as usual, input data (those entered before the keyword \texttt{to}) may be control sequences (defined with the necessary data), or explicit data; on the opposite the output ones must be control sequences.
\begin{figure}[!htb]
\begin{minipage}{0.475\linewidth}
\unitlength0.01\linewidth
\begin{picture}(100,100)(-50,-50)
\AutoGrid
\VECTOR(-50,0)(50,0) \Pbox(50,0)[tr]{x}[0]
\VECTOR(0,-50)(0,50) \Pbox(0,50)[l]{y}[0]
\edef\Kuno{-10,-10}\edef\RKuno{30}%
\edef\Kdue{20,10}\edef\RKdue{20}
\thicklines
\Circlewithcenter\Kuno radius\RKuno
\Circlewithcenter\Kdue radius\RKdue
\thinlines
\TwoCirclesIntersections(\Kuno)(\Kdue)withradii\RKuno and\RKdue to\Puno and\Pdue
\Pbox(\Kuno)[br]{C_1}[4] \Pbox(\Kdue)[bl]{C_2}[4]
\Pbox(\Puno)[tl]{P_1}[4] \Pbox(\Pdue)[bc]{P_2}[4]
\put(\Kuno){\Vector(-45:\RKuno)}\Pbox(5,-27)[bl]{R_1}[0]
\put(\Kdue){\Vector(-45:\RKdue)}\Pbox(25, 3)[bl]{R_2}[0]
\Pbox(\CI)[t]{I}[4]
%
\segment(\Kuno)(\Kdue)\segment(\Puno)(\Pdue)
\segment(\Kuno)(\Pdue)\segment(\Kdue)(\Pdue)
\segment(\Kuno)(\Puno)\segment(\Puno)(\Kdue)
\end{picture}
\end{minipage}
\hfill
\begin{minipage}{0.475\linewidth}
\unitlength0.01\linewidth
\begin{picture}(100,100)(-50,-50)
\AutoGrid
\VECTOR(-50,0)(50,0) \Pbox(50,0)[tr]{x}[0]
\VECTOR(0,-50)(0,50) \Pbox(0,50)[l]{y}[0]
\edef\Kuno{-10,-10}\edef\RKuno{30}%
\edef\Kdue{20,10}\edef\RKdue{20}
\thicklines
\Circlewithcenter\Kuno radius\RKuno
\Circlewithcenter\Kdue radius\RKdue
\thinlines
\TwoCirclesIntersections(\Kuno)(\Kdue)withradii\RKuno and\RKdue to\Puno and\Pdue
\Pbox(\Kuno)[b]{C_1}[4] \Pbox(\Kdue)[b]{C_2}[4]
\Pbox(\Puno)[tl]{P_1}[4] \Pbox(\Pdue)[b]{P_2}[4]
\put(\Kuno){\Vector(-45:\RKuno)}\Pbox(5,-27)[bl]{R_1}[0]
\put(\Kdue){\Vector(-45:\RKdue)}\Pbox(25,3)[bl]{R_2}[0]
\end{picture}
\end{minipage}
\caption{Intersections of two generic circles}\label{fig;Intersections-of-two-circles}\label{fig:2circle-intersections}
\end{figure}
The code for drawing figure~\ref{fig;Intersections-of-two-circles} is the following.
\begin{Verbatim}
\begin{minipage}{0.475\linewidth}% Geometrical construction
\unitlength0.01\linewidth
\begin{picture}(100,100)(-50,-50)
\AutoGrid
\VECTOR(-50,0)(50,0) \Pbox(50,0)[tr]{x}[0]
\VECTOR(0,-50)(0,50) \Pbox(0,50)[l]{y}[0]
\edef\Kuno{-10,-10}\edef\RKuno{30}%
\edef\Kdue{20,10}\edef\RKdue{20}
\thicklines
\Circlewithcenter\Kuno radius\RKuno
\Circlewithcenter\Kdue radius\RKdue
\thinlines
\TwoCirclesIntersections(\Kuno)(\Kdue)withradii\RKuno
and\RKdue to\Puno and\Pdue
\Pbox(\Kuno)[br]{C_1}[4] \Pbox(\Kdue)[bl]{C_2}[4]
\Pbox(\Puno)[tl]{P_1}[4] \Pbox(\Pdue)[bc]{P_2}[4]
\put(\Kuno){\Vector(-45:\RKuno)}\Pbox(5,-27)[bl]{R_1}[0]
\put(\Kdue){\Vector(-45:\RKdue)}\Pbox(25, 3)[bl]{R_2}[0]
\Pbox(\CI)[t]{I}[4]
%
\segment(\Kuno)(\Kdue)\segment(\Puno)(\Pdue)
\segment(\Kuno)(\Pdue)\segment(\Kdue)(\Pdue)
\segment(\Kuno)(\Puno)\segment(\Puno)(\Kdue)
\end{picture}
\end{minipage}
\hfill
\begin{minipage}{0.475\linewidth}% Clean final result
\unitlength0.01\linewidth
\begin{picture}(100,100)(-50,-50)
\AutoGrid
\VECTOR(-50,0)(50,0) \Pbox(50,0)[tr]{x}[0]
\VECTOR(0,-50)(0,50) \Pbox(0,50)[l]{y}[0]
\edef\Kuno{-10,-10}\edef\RKuno{30}%
\edef\Kdue{20,10}\edef\RKdue{20}
\thicklines
\Circlewithcenter\Kuno radius\RKuno
\Circlewithcenter\Kdue radius\RKdue
\thinlines
\TwoCirclesIntersections(\Kuno)(\Kdue)withradii\RKuno
and\RKdue to\Puno and\Pdue
\Pbox(\Kuno)[b]{C_1}[4] \Pbox(\Kdue)[b]{C_2}[4]
\Pbox(\Puno)[tl]{P_1}[4] \Pbox(\Pdue)[b]{P_2}[4]
\put(\Kuno){\Vector(-45:\RKuno)}\Pbox(5,-27)[bl]{R_1}[0]
\put(\Kdue){\Vector(-45:\RKdue)}\Pbox(25,3)[bl]{R_2}[0]
\end{picture}
\end{minipage}
\end{Verbatim}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
\subsection{Triangles and their special lines}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
Triangles have special lines; they are the median, the height, and the
bisector lines. They join each vertex with a specific point of the
apposite side, respectively with the middle point, the intersection
with the side perpendicular line, and the intersection with the bisector
line. Figure~\ref{fig:MHBlines} displays the construction of the three
special lines relative to a specific vertex. Thanks to the macros
described earlier in the preceding section, this drawing is particularly
simple; most of the code is dedicated to labelling the various points and
to assign coordinate values to the macros that are going to be used
in a symbolic way. The generic triangle (not a regular polygon) requires
one line of code, and the determination of the intersections of the lines
with the suitable triangle side, and their tracing requires two code
lines each.
\begin{figure}[!tb]\centering
\begin{Esempio}[\setfontsize{6.9}](0.4)
\unitlength=0.008\linewidth
\begin{picture}(100,100)(0,-10)
\AutoGrid
\def\Puno{0,0} \def\Pdue{0,80} \def\Ptre{100,55}
{\thicklines\polygon(\Puno)(\Pdue)(\Ptre)}%
\Pbox(\Puno)[tc]{P_1}[2]
\Pbox(\Pdue)[bc]{P_2}[2]\Pbox(\Ptre)[bc]{P_3}[2]
% Median
\TriangleMedianBase\Puno on \Pdue and \Ptre to\M
\Pbox(\M)[bc]{M}[2]\segment(\Puno)(\M)
% Height
\TriangleHeightBase\Puno on \Pdue and\Ptre to\H
\Dotline(\Puno)(\H){2}[1.5]\Pbox(\H)[bc]{H}[1.5]
% Bisector
\TriangleBisectorBase\Puno on\Pdue and\Ptre to\B
\Dashline(\Puno)(\B){1.5}\Pbox(\B)[b]{B}[2]
\end{picture}
\end{Esempio}
\caption{A triangle with the median, the height, and the bisector lines
from a specific vertex}\label{fig:MHBlines}
\end{figure}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
\subsection{Special triangle centers}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
Three triangle special lines of the same kind intersect each
other in a special point; the median lines intersect in the
\emph{barycenter}, the height lines in the \emph{orthocenter}, the
bisector lines in the \emph{incenter}; these centers may be those of
special circles: see figures~\ref{fig:barycenter}
to~\ref{fig:circumcenter}; the \emph{incircle}, centred in the incenter,
has a special name, because it has the property of being tangent to all
three triangle sides; there is also the circumcircle that passes
through the three vertices, its center is the intersection of the
three side axes.
Figures~\ref{fig:barycenter}, \ref{fig:orthocenter}, \ref{fig:incenter},
and~\ref{fig:circumcenter} display the necessary constructions and,
possibly, also the special circles they are centers of. There is also the \emph{nine point circle}, figure~\ref{fig:9point-circle}. It is worth noting the alla centers fall inside the various triangles, except the orthocenter that falls outside when the triangle is obtuse.
\begin{figure}[!htb]
\begin{Esempio}[\setfontsize{6.5}](0.45)
\unitlength=0.008\linewidth
\begin{picture}(100,100)(0,-10)
\AutoGrid
\def\Puno{0,0}\def\Pdue{0,80}\def\Ptre{100,55}
{\linethickness{0.6pt}\polygon(\Puno)(\Pdue)(\Ptre)}%
\Pbox(\Puno)[tl]{P_1}[1.5]%
\Pbox(\Pdue)[bl]{P_2}[1.5]\Pbox(\Ptre)[bc]{P_3}[1.5]
\TriangleMedianBase\Puno on\Pdue and \Ptre to\Mu
\TriangleMedianBase\Pdue on\Ptre and \Puno to\Md
\TriangleMedianBase\Ptre on\Puno and \Pdue to\Mt
\Dotline(\Puno)(\Mu){3}[1.5]
\Dotline(\Pdue)(\Md){3}[1.5]
\Dotline(\Ptre)(\Mt){3}[1.5]
\IntersectionOfSegments(\Puno)(\Mu)and(\Pdue)(\Md)to\C
\Pbox(\C)[t]{B}[2]
\end{picture}
\end{Esempio}
\caption{Determination of the barycenter}\label{fig:barycenter}
\end{figure}
\begin{figure}[!htb]
\begin{Esempio}[\setfontsize{6.5}](0.45)
\unitlength=0.008\linewidth
\begin{picture}(100,100)(0,-10)
\AutoGrid
\def\Puno{0,0}\def\Pdue{0,80}\def\Ptre{100,55}
{\linethickness{0.6pt}\polygon(\Puno)(\Pdue)(\Ptre)}%
\Pbox(\Puno)[tl]{P_1}[1.5]%
\Pbox(\Pdue)[bl]{P_2}[1.5]\Pbox(\Ptre)[bc]{P_3}[1.5]
\TriangleHeightBase\Puno on\Pdue and \Ptre to\Hu
\TriangleHeightBase\Pdue on\Ptre and \Puno to\Hd
\TriangleHeightBase\Ptre on\Puno and \Pdue to\Ht
\Dotline(\Puno)(\Hu){3}[1.5]
\Dotline(\Pdue)(\Hd){3}[1.5]
\Dotline(\Ptre)(\Ht){3}[1.5]
\IntersectionOfSegments(\Puno)(\Hu)and(\Pdue)(\Hd)to\C
\Pbox(\C)[t]{H}[2]
\end{picture}
\end{Esempio}
\caption{Determination of the orthocenter}\label{fig:orthocenter}
\end{figure}
\begin{figure}[!htb]
\begin{Esempio}[\setfontsize{6}](0.45)
\unitlength=0.008\linewidth
\begin{picture}(100,100)(0,-10)
\AutoGrid
\def\Puno{0,0}\def\Pdue{0,80}\def\Ptre{100,55}
{\linethickness{0.6pt}%
\polygon(\Puno)(\Pdue)(\Ptre)}%
\Pbox(\Puno)[tl]{P_1}[1.5]%
\Pbox(\Pdue)[bl]{P_2}[1.5]
\Pbox(\Ptre)[bc]{P_3}[1.5]
\TriangleBisectorBase\Puno on\Pdue and \Ptre to\Iu
\TriangleBisectorBase\Pdue on\Ptre and \Puno to\Id
\TriangleBisectorBase\Ptre on\Puno and \Pdue to\It
\Dotline(\Puno)(\Iu){3}[1.5]
\Dotline(\Pdue)(\Id){3}[1.5]
\Dotline(\Ptre)(\It){3}[1.5]
\IntersectionOfSegments(\Puno)(\Iu)%
and(\Pdue)(\Id)to\C
\Pbox(\C)[t]{I}[2]
\DistanceOfPoint\C from(\Puno)(\Pdue)to\R
\Circlewithcenter\C radius\R
\end{picture}
\end{Esempio}
\caption{Determination of the incenter and of the incircle}\label{fig:incenter}
\end{figure}
\begin{figure}[!htb]
\begin{Esempio}*[\normalsize](0.45)
\unitlength=0.007\linewidth\centering
\begin{picture}(110,110)(-5,0)
\AutoGrid
\CopyVect20,10to\Pu \Pbox(\Pu)[t]{P_1}
\CopyVect10,90to\Pd \Pbox(\Pd)[br]{P_2}
\CopyVect100,70to\Pt \Pbox(\Pt)[l]{P_3}
{\linethickness{0.6pt}\polygon(\Pu)(\Pd)(\Pt)}%
\AxisOf\Pd and\Pu to\Mu\Du \segment(\Mu)(\Du)
\AxisOf\Pu and\Pt to\Md\Dd \segment(\Md)(\Dd)
\AxisOf\Pt and\Pd to\Mt\Dt\segment(\Mt)(\Dt)
\IntersectionOfSegments(\Mu)(\Du)and(\Md)(\Dd)to\C
\ThreePointCircle*(\Pu)(\Pd)(\Pt)
\Pbox(\C)[l]{C}[3.5]
\end{picture}
\end{Esempio}
\caption{Determination of the circumcenter and of the circumcircle}\label{fig:circumcenter}
\end{figure}
\begin{figure}
\begin{Esempio}*[\small](0.40)
\unitlength=0.007\linewidth\centering
\begin{picture}(100,100)(0,-10)
\AutoGrid
\CopyVect20,0to\Pu \Pbox(\Pu)[t]{P_1}[2pt]
\CopyVect10,80to\Pd \Pbox(\Pd)[b]{P_2}[2pt]
\CopyVect100,60to\Pt \Pbox(\Pt)[b]{P_3}[2pt]
{\polygon(\Pu)(\Pd)(\Pt)\ignorespaces}
\TriangleMedianBase\Pu on\Pd and\Pt to\Pmu\Pbox(\Pmu)[bl]{M_1}[2pt]
\TriangleMedianBase\Pd on\Pt and\Pu to\Pmd\Pbox(\Pmd)[tl]{M_2}[2pt]
\TriangleMedianBase\Pt on\Pu and\Pd to\Pmt \Pbox(\Pmt)[tr]{M_3}[2pt]
\ThreePointCircle(\Pmu)(\Pmd)(\Pmt)
\TriangleHeightBase\Pu on\Pd and\Pt to\Phu\Pbox(\Phu)[b]{H_1}[2pt]
\TriangleHeightBase\Pd on\Pt and\Pu to\Phd\Pbox(\Phd)[tl]{H_2}[2pt]
\TriangleHeightBase\Pt on\Pu and\Pd to\Pht\Pbox(\Pht)[br]{H_3}[2pt]
\segment(\Pu)(\Phu) \segment(\Pd)(\Phd) \segment(\Pt)(\Pht)
\SubVect\Pu from\Phu to\DirHu \SubVect\Pd from\Phd to\DirHd
\SubVect\Pt from\Pht to\DirHt
\IntersectionOfLines(\Pu)(\DirHu)and(\Pt)(\DirHt)to\Po
\Pbox(\Po)[tl]{O}[2pt]
\MiddlePointOf(\Po)(\Pu)to\Pou \Pbox(\Pou)[l]{O_1}[2pt]
\MiddlePointOf(\Po)(\Pd)to\Pod \Pbox(\Pod)[b]{O_2}[2pt]
\MiddlePointOf(\Po)(\Pt)to\Pot \Pbox(\Pot)[bl]{O_3}[2pt]
\ThreePointCircle*(\Pou)(\Pod)(\Pot)
\end{picture}
\end{Esempio}
\caption{The nine point circle with its code}\label{fig:9point-circle}
\end{figure}
Given the triangle with vertices $P_1, P_2, P_3$, the nine point circle is shown in figure~\ref{fig:9point-circle} with its code. The nine point are the triples of $(a)$ the height base point if the height lines; $(b)$ the middle points of the fraction of each height line between each vertex and the orthocenter; $(c)$ the middle points of the sides. It goes by itself that any point triple among the three ones of the nine point circle is good to draw he final circle.
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
\subsection{Triangles and ellipses}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
There are some situations where an ellipse should be inserted within a triangle with some constraints. Some examples are described in the following sub subsections.
The following examples require some new simple macros, described in the
previous sections; some more more examples can be made that require more
complex macros. Even these macros are just examples. For other
applications it is probably necessary to add even more macros.
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
\subsubsection{The Steiner ellipse}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
Let us proceed with the construction of the Steiner ellipse: given a
triangle, there exists only one ellipse that is internally tangent to
the side mid-points.
The geometrical construction goes on this way; suppose you have to draw
the Steiner ellipse of triangle $T$; finding the side middle points
has already been shown, but the process to build the ellipse is still
to be found. So let us chose a side to work as the base of triangle $T$,
and perform an affine shear transformation parallel to the base
so as to move the vertex of triangle $T$, opposite to the base, on the
base axis, we get another triangle $T_1$ that is isosceles; if it is
not yet so, let us make another compression/expansion affine
transformation, so as to get an equilateral triangle $T_2$; this last
triangle is particularly simple to handle, because its Steiner ellipse
reduces to its incircle. If we apply in reverse order the above
transformations we get the Steiner ellipse we were looking for.
The only difficult part is the affine shear transformation.
The L3 functions we already created take care of all such
transformations, but with an optional asterisk we can draw the
intermediate passages where triangles $T_2$ and $T_1$ have their base
shifted and rotated to be horizontal, so that some translations and
rotations are also necessary. Figure~\ref{fig:Steiner-finale} displays
the final result and the code necessary to build it.
\begin{figure}[!htb]
\begin{Esempio}[\setfontsize{8}](0.5)
\unitlength=0.01\linewidth
\begin{picture}(100,110)
\AutoGrid
\SteinerEllipse(10,10)(90,20)(60,105)[2]
\end{picture}
\end{Esempio}
\caption{The Steiner ellipse of a given triangle}
\label{fig:Steiner-finale}
\end{figure}
With just the addition of an asterisk we can draw the whole geometrical
construction; see figure~\ref{fig:Steiner-intermedio}
\begin{figure}[!htb]
\begin{Esempio}[\setfontsize{8}](0.5)
\unitlength=0.01\linewidth
\begin{picture}(100,110)(0,-10)
\AutoGrid
\SteinerEllipse*(10,10)(90,20)(60,105)[2]
\end{picture}
\end{Esempio}
\caption{The construction of the Steiner ellipse of a given triangle}
\label{fig:Steiner-intermedio}
\end{figure}
\begin{figure}[!tbp]\centering
\begin{Esempio}*[\setfontsize{8.2}](0.40)
\unitlength=0.005\linewidth
\begin{picture}(170,160)(-60,-80)
\AutoGrid
\VECTOR(0,-80)(0,80)\Pbox(0,80)[r]{y}[0]
\VECTOR(-60,0)(110,0)\Pbox(110,0)[t]{x}[0]
% Ellipse with given semi axes
\edef\A{40}\edef\B{30}\Xellisse{\A}{\B}[\thicklines]
% Point P on the ellipse
\edef\X{\fpeval{\A*cosd(120)}}\edef\Y{\fpeval{\B*sind(120)}}
\edef\P{\X,\Y}\Pbox(\P)[b]{P}[3]
% Foci coordinates
\edef\C{\fpeval{sqrt(\A**2-\B**2)}}
\CopyVect-\C,0 to\F \CopyVect\C,0 to\Fp\Pbox(\Fp)[t]{F'}[3]
\Pbox(\F)[t]{F}[3]\Pbox(0,0)[tr]{O}[3]
% Director circumference
\edef\Raggio{\fpeval{2*\A}}
\Circlewithcenter\Fp radius\Raggio \Pbox(80,60)[tr]{\ISOGamma{lmss}}[0]
% Tangent construction
\SegmentLength(\P)(\F)to\raggio
\Circlewithcenter\P radius\raggio \Pbox(-10,50)[bl]{\ISOgamma{lmss}}[0]
\SegmentArg(\Fp)(\P)to\Arg\AddVect\Fp and\Arg:\Raggio to\S
\segment(\Fp)(\S)\Pbox(\S)[br]{S}[3]
\segment(\F)(\S)\SegmentCenter(\F)(\S)to\M
\Pbox(\M)[r]{M}[3]\SegmentArg(\F)(\S)to\Arg
% Tangent
\edef\Arg{\fpeval{\Arg-90}}
\AddVect\M and \Arg:50 to\D \Pbox(\D)[l]{D}[3]
\segment(\M)(\D)
\end{picture}
\end{Esempio}
\caption{The director circumference}\label{fig:diretriz}
\end{figure}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
\subsubsection{The tangent to an ellipse}\label{ssec:diretriz}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
Ellipses have many interesting properties. One that I was not able to find anywhere in the documentation I examined (of course not the totality of available documents on ellipses) except an on-line document written in Portuguese by Sergio Alvez,
\begin{flushleft}\setfontsize{10}%
\url{https://docplayer.com.br/345411-Elipses-inscritas-num-triangulo.html}\end{flushleft}
is the \emph{director circumference}, literal translation of the Portuguese definition \emph{circunfência diretriz}.
Consider an ellipse with its foci $F$ en $F'$, and a generic point $P$ on its contour.
Trace a segment from $F\,P$ and another segment for $P\,F'$; these segments measure the distances from point $P$ to each focus: their sum is the length of the main ellipse axis $2a$, where $a$ is the semi axis. Now lengthen the segment $P\,F'$ to point $S$ by the length of $F\,P$; the length of $S\,F'$ is therefore equal to $2a$; now trace the circumference with center in $F'$ and radius $2a$; this is the \emph{director circumference}, that is labelled with~$\Gamma$.
By construction, then, the circle $\gamma$ centred in $P$ and radius equal to $F\,P$ is tangent to $\Gamma$ in $S$ and passes through $F$. This allows to say that:
\begin{itemize}[noitemsep]
\item the ellipse is the locus of the centres of all circles passing through focus $F$ and internally tangent to the circle $\Gamma$ centred in the other focus $F'$ and with radius $2a$;
\item the axis of segment $S\,F$ is tangent to the ellipse;
\item the tangency point is the point $P$;
\item since this axis passes through the midpoint $M$ of segment $S\,F$ and it is perpendicular to it, the segment $M\,P$ determines the direction of the tangent to the ellipse;
\item notice that points $S$ and $F$ are symmetrical with respect to the tangent in point $P$.
\end{itemize}
Such properties can be viewed and controlled in figure~\ref{fig:diretriz}.
Of course the geometrical construction of figure~\ref{fig:diretriz} can be used also in reverse order; for example it may be given a line to play the role of the tangent, a point on this line to play the role of tangency, and a point not belonging to the line to play the role of a focus, then it is possible to find the other focus laying on a horizontal line passing through the given focus. It suffices to find the symmetrical point of the first focus with respect with the given line, and to draw a line passing through this symmetrical point and the point of tangency that intersects the horizontal line through the first focus, concluding that this is the second focus and that the ellipse major axis length is that of the segment joining this second focus with the above mentioned symmetrical point.
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
\subsubsection{A triangle internally tangent ellipse given one of its foci}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
It is possible to draw an ellipse that is internally tangent to
a triangle if one of its foci is specified; without this specification
the problem is not definite, and the number of such ellipses is
countless.
But with the focus specification, just one ellipse exists with that
tangency constraint. It suffices to find the other focus and at least
one point of tangency, because the focal distance and the sum of
distances of that tangency point from the foci, is sufficient to
determine all the parameters required to draw the ellipse.
As seen in the previous subsection~\ref{ssec:diretriz}, it is sufficient to find the three symmetrical points of the given focus with respect to the three sides, i.e. the three lines that pass through the triangle vertices; and the constructions gives simultaneously the major axis length and the three tangency points, therefore all the elements required to draw the ellipse to be drawn.
\begin{figure}[!tb]\centering
\begin{Esempio}[\setfontsize{7}](0.375)
\unitlength=0.0065\linewidth
\begin{picture}(150,150)(-30,-20)
\AutoGrid
\EllipseWithFocus%
(10,40)(110,10)(0,110)(20,60)
\end{picture}
\end{Esempio}
\caption{An ellipse internally tangent to a triangle, given a focus}
\label{fig:ellisse-interna-finale}
\end{figure}
\begin{figure}[!tb]
\begin{Esempio}*[\normalsize](0.375)
\unitlength0.0065\linewidth
\begin{picture}(150,150)(-30,-20)
\AutoGrid
\EllipseWithFocus*%
(10,40)(110,10)(0,110)(20,60)
\end{picture}
\end{Esempio}
\caption{Construction of the ellipse of figure~\ref{fig:ellisse-interna-finale}}\label{fig:ellisse-interna}
\end{figure}
The geometrical construction, with help of what has been explained in
subsection~\ref{ssec:diretriz}, is easy; the steps to follow, therefore
are the following:\enlargethispage*{\baselineskip}
\begin{itemize}[noitemsep]
\item draw the triangle and the given focus $\mathsf{F}$;
\item find the symmetrical points $\mathsf S_i$ of this
focus with respect to the sides of the triangle;
\item use these three points $\mathsf S_i$ as the vertices of a triangle
with which to draw its circumcircle that turns to be the \emph{director circumference}; actually only its center is of
interest, because it represents the second focus $\mathsf F'$; the
inter focal distance $2c$; is just le length of vector $F' -F$;
\item join with segments each symmetrical point $\mathsf S_i$ with the
second focus $\mathsf F'$ and find their intersections $\mathsf T_i$
with the triangle sides; they represent the tangency points of the
ellipse to be drawn;
\item the radius of the director circumference is the ellipse major axis;
\item equation~\eqref{equ:axes-foci} allows to find the second axis
length; the segment that joins the foci has the required inclination
of the main axis; its middle point is the ellipse center; therefore all
necessary pieces of information to draw the ellipse are known.
\end{itemize}
Figures~\ref{fig:ellisse-interna-finale} and~\ref{fig:ellisse-interna}
display the construction steps and the final result.
\begin{figure}
\begin{Esempio}*[\setfontsize{8.5}](0.40)
\begin{minipage}{0.475\linewidth}\unitlength=0.00815\linewidth
\begin{picture}(120,120)(-10,-10)
\AutoGrid
\polygon(0,0)(0,100)(100,100)(100,0)
{\color{black!10!white}
\polygon*(0,60)(0,0)(60,0)(60,60)
\polygon*(0,60)(40,60)(40,100)(0,100)}
\linethickness{2pt}
\polygon(0,60)(0,0)(60,0)(60,60)
\polygon(0,60)(40,60)(40,100)(0,100)
\linethickness{1pt}
{\color{red}\polygon(60,0)(100,60)(60,60)
\polygon(40,60)(40,100)(100,60)
\Pbox(75,45)[cc]{T_1}[0pt]\Pbox(60,0)[t]{C_1}[3pt]
\Pbox(55,75)[cc]{T_2}[0pt]\Pbox(40,100)[b]{C_2}[3pt]}
\Pbox(20,100)[b]{a}[0pt]\Pbox(70,100)[b]{b}[0pt]
\Pbox(100,80)[l]{a}[0pt]\Pbox(100,30)[l]{b}[0pt]
\Pbox(30,0)[t]{b}[0pt] \Pbox(80,0)[t]{a}[0pt]
\Pbox(0,30)[r]{b}[0pt] \Pbox(0,80)[r]{a}[0pt]
\Pbox(70,80)[bl]{c}[0pt]\Pbox(80,30)[tl]{c}[0pt]
\end{picture}
\end{minipage}
\hfill
\begin{minipage}{0.475\linewidth}\unitlength=0.00815\linewidth
\begin{picture}(120,120)(-10,-10)
\AutoGrid
\polyline(60,0)(100,0)(100,100)(40,100)
\Pbox(20,100)[b]{a}[0pt]\Pbox(70,100)[b]{b}[0pt]
\Pbox(100,80)[l]{a}[0pt]\Pbox(100,30)[l]{b}[0pt]
\Pbox(30,0)[t]{b}[0pt] \Pbox(80,0)[t]{a}[0pt]
\Pbox(0,20)[r]{a}[0pt] \Pbox(0,70)[r]{b}[0pt]
{\color{black!10!white}\polygon*(60,0)(100,60)(40,100)(0,40)}%
{\thicklines\color{red}\polygon(60,0)(100,60)(40,100)(0,40)
\Pbox(15,80)[cc]{T_2}[0pt]\Pbox(60,0)[t]{C_1}[3pt]
\Pbox(20,15)[cc]{T_1}[0pt]\Pbox(40,100)[b]{C_2}[3pt]
\polyline(40,100)(0,100)(0,0)(60,0)}
\Pbox(70,80)[tr]{c}[0pt]\Pbox(80,30)[br]{c}[0pt]
\Pbox(20,70)[tl]{c}[0pt]\Pbox(30,20)[bl]{c}[0pt]
\end{picture}
\end{minipage}
\end{Esempio}
\caption{Two squares partitioned in differente ways}
\label{fig:two squares}
\end{figure}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
\subsection{A simple proof of Pythagoras' theorem}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
Euclide at his time could not use the algebra symbology we use today; he did not have even an effective way to write numbers; in his time in Greece and in the Near East the numbers were written with letters, the usual alphabetic letters; the Greek alphabet of 24 letters, was extended with three more symbols, stigma (\stigma), qoppa (\qoppa) and sampi (\sampi), for a total of 27 seven symbols divided in three groups of 9 symbols. The first group represented the modern values from~1 to~9, the second group represented the values from~10 to~90, the last group represented the values from~100 to~900. therefore they could easily write numbers up to~999‘, an apex denoting the fact that the letter string meant a number, not a word. For the thousands they used the same symbols preceded by an inverted apex.so they could arrive to ‚9‚9‚9 999‘. The same use of letters for denoting numbers, was in use also among the Phoenicians and the Palestinians; the Kabala is a practice that suggests special informations to those that can interpret such letter/number signs. But it was practically impossible to do any serious calculations, in any case no square roots. This is why geometry was the only means to make “impossible” calculations.
The “Elements” by Euclide contain many theorems and statements that are demonstrated with geometrical constructions; The demonstration of Pythagoras' theorem to my eyes appears too complicated and difficult to understand; the geometrical construction developed hereafter is particularly ingenious and simple to understand.
Assume you have a square triangle of legs $a$ and $b$ and hypothenuse $c$; the theorem states that the area of the square built on the hypotenuse equals the sum of the areas of the squares built on each leg.
Let us prepare two similar squares of equal areas partitioned in differente ways. See figure~\ref{fig:two squares}.
In both images you see the overall squares have side lengths equal to the sum of the right triangle legs; in the left image the grey squares have side lengths equalling each right triangle leg respectively. The overall square contains also two rectangles with side lengths $a$ and $b$ so that the diagonal equals the right triangle hypothenuse.
These diagonals, therefore, partition the respective rectangles in two right triangles with the same dimensions of the original right triangle. In particular two of such triangles are labeled $T_1$ and $T_2$ and the vertices labeled $C_1$ and $C_2$ are emphasised. Let us now rotate both labelled triangles around their labelled vertices so as to obtain the right image, where the overall square has the same sides as the original one, although partitioned in a slightly differente way; their areas are the same; but in this second image the grey square has its side equal to the original right triangle hypothenuse; since the four right triangles contained in the overall squares of both images are equal, thus the sum of their areas are he same; therefore the grey areas in each image are the same and this means that the area of the square built on the hypotenuse equals the sum of the area of the squares built on the legs of the original right triangle. Pythagoras' theorem is proved without any use of algebra.
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
\section{Conclusion}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
We have shown that the \amb{picture} environment, extended with
this package \pack{euclideangeometry} (that takes care of loading
\pack{curve2e} and \pack{pict2e}) can make important diagrams that
certainly were not foreseen by Leslie Lamport when he first wrote the
code for the initial \env{picture} environment.
The reader can easily understand that this package is far from being
exhaustive for all geometrical problems to be solved with ruler and
compass; it shows a way to add more commands to approach further
problems; if any author, who creates new commands, would like to
contribute more macros to this package, I will be happy to integrate
his/her contribution to a new version of this package; depending on the
contribution, I would be very happy to add its author name to this
package author list; for simpler contributions each contributor will be
duly acknowledged.\enlargethispage*{\baselineskip}
Creating new macros to solve more problems is pleasant; the more
difficult the problem, the greater the satisfaction in solving it.
\begin{center}\bfseries
Enjoy using \LaTeX and its possible applications!
\end{center}
\end{document}